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// Copyright 2011 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package test
import (
// Break init loop.
func init() {
CmdTest.Run = runTest
const testUsage = "go test [build/test flags] [packages] [build/test flags & test binary flags]"
var CmdTest = &base.Command{
CustomFlags: true,
UsageLine: testUsage,
Short: "test packages",
Long: `
'Go test' automates testing the packages named by the import paths.
It prints a summary of the test results in the format:
ok archive/tar 0.011s
FAIL archive/zip 0.022s
ok compress/gzip 0.033s
followed by detailed output for each failed package.
'Go test' recompiles each package along with any files with names matching
the file pattern "*_test.go".
These additional files can contain test functions, benchmark functions, and
example functions. See 'go help testfunc' for more.
Each listed package causes the execution of a separate test binary.
Files whose names begin with "_" (including "_test.go") or "." are ignored.
Test files that declare a package with the suffix "_test" will be compiled as a
separate package, and then linked and run with the main test binary.
The go tool will ignore a directory named "testdata", making it available
to hold ancillary data needed by the tests.
As part of building a test binary, go test runs go vet on the package
and its test source files to identify significant problems. If go vet
finds any problems, go test reports those and does not run the test
binary. Only a high-confidence subset of the default go vet checks are
used. That subset is: 'atomic', 'bool', 'buildtags', 'nilfunc', and
'printf'. You can see the documentation for these and other vet tests
via "go doc cmd/vet". To disable the running of go vet, use the
-vet=off flag.
All test output and summary lines are printed to the go command's
standard output, even if the test printed them to its own standard
error. (The go command's standard error is reserved for printing
errors building the tests.)
Go test runs in two different modes:
The first, called local directory mode, occurs when go test is
invoked with no package arguments (for example, 'go test' or 'go
test -v'). In this mode, go test compiles the package sources and
tests found in the current directory and then runs the resulting
test binary. In this mode, caching (discussed below) is disabled.
After the package test finishes, go test prints a summary line
showing the test status ('ok' or 'FAIL'), package name, and elapsed
The second, called package list mode, occurs when go test is invoked
with explicit package arguments (for example 'go test math', 'go
test ./...', and even 'go test .'). In this mode, go test compiles
and tests each of the packages listed on the command line. If a
package test passes, go test prints only the final 'ok' summary
line. If a package test fails, go test prints the full test output.
If invoked with the -bench or -v flag, go test prints the full
output even for passing package tests, in order to display the
requested benchmark results or verbose logging.
In package list mode only, go test caches successful package test
results to avoid unnecessary repeated running of tests. When the
result of a test can be recovered from the cache, go test will
redisplay the previous output instead of running the test binary
again. When this happens, go test prints '(cached)' in place of the
elapsed time in the summary line.
The rule for a match in the cache is that the run involves the same
test binary and the flags on the command line come entirely from a
restricted set of 'cacheable' test flags, defined as -cpu, -list,
-parallel, -run, -short, and -v. If a run of go test has any test
or non-test flags outside this set, the result is not cached. To
disable test caching, use any test flag or argument other than the
cacheable flags. The idiomatic way to disable test caching explicitly
is to use -count=1. Tests that open files within the package's source
root (usually $GOPATH) or that consult environment variables only
match future runs in which the files and environment variables are unchanged.
A cached test result is treated as executing in no time at all,
so a successful package test result will be cached and reused
regardless of -timeout setting.
` + strings.TrimSpace(testFlag1) + ` See 'go help testflag' for details.
For more about build flags, see 'go help build'.
For more about specifying packages, see 'go help packages'.
See also: go build, go vet.
const testFlag1 = `
In addition to the build flags, the flags handled by 'go test' itself are:
Pass the remainder of the command line (everything after -args)
to the test binary, uninterpreted and unchanged.
Because this flag consumes the remainder of the command line,
the package list (if present) must appear before this flag.
Compile the test binary to pkg.test but do not run it
(where pkg is the last element of the package's import path).
The file name can be changed with the -o flag.
-exec xprog
Run the test binary using xprog. The behavior is the same as
in 'go run'. See 'go help run' for details.
Install packages that are dependencies of the test.
Do not run the test.
Convert test output to JSON suitable for automated processing.
See 'go doc test2json' for the encoding details.
-o file
Compile the test binary to the named file.
The test still runs (unless -c or -i is specified).
The test binary also accepts flags that control execution of the test; these
flags are also accessible by 'go test'.
// Usage prints the usage message for 'go test -h' and exits.
func Usage() {
os.Stderr.WriteString("usage: " + testUsage + "\n\n" +
strings.TrimSpace(testFlag1) + "\n\n\t" +
strings.TrimSpace(testFlag2) + "\n")
var HelpTestflag = &base.Command{
UsageLine: "testflag",
Short: "testing flags",
Long: `
The 'go test' command takes both flags that apply to 'go test' itself
and flags that apply to the resulting test binary.
Several of the flags control profiling and write an execution profile
suitable for "go tool pprof"; run "go tool pprof -h" for more
information. The --alloc_space, --alloc_objects, and --show_bytes
options of pprof control how the information is presented.
The following flags are recognized by the 'go test' command and
control the execution of any test:
` + strings.TrimSpace(testFlag2) + `
const testFlag2 = `
-bench regexp
Run only those benchmarks matching a regular expression.
By default, no benchmarks are run.
To run all benchmarks, use '-bench .' or '-bench=.'.
The regular expression is split by unbracketed slash (/)
characters into a sequence of regular expressions, and each
part of a benchmark's identifier must match the corresponding
element in the sequence, if any. Possible parents of matches
are run with b.N=1 to identify sub-benchmarks. For example,
given -bench=X/Y, top-level benchmarks matching X are run
with b.N=1 to find any sub-benchmarks matching Y, which are
then run in full.
-benchtime t
Run enough iterations of each benchmark to take t, specified
as a time.Duration (for example, -benchtime 1h30s).
The default is 1 second (1s).
-count n
Run each test and benchmark n times (default 1).
If -cpu is set, run n times for each GOMAXPROCS value.
Examples are always run once.
Enable coverage analysis.
Note that because coverage works by annotating the source
code before compilation, compilation and test failures with
coverage enabled may report line numbers that don't correspond
to the original sources.
-covermode set,count,atomic
Set the mode for coverage analysis for the package[s]
being tested. The default is "set" unless -race is enabled,
in which case it is "atomic".
The values:
set: bool: does this statement run?
count: int: how many times does this statement run?
atomic: int: count, but correct in multithreaded tests;
significantly more expensive.
Sets -cover.
-coverpkg pattern1,pattern2,pattern3
Apply coverage analysis in each test to packages matching the patterns.
The default is for each test to analyze only the package being tested.
See 'go help packages' for a description of package patterns.
Sets -cover.
-cpu 1,2,4
Specify a list of GOMAXPROCS values for which the tests or
benchmarks should be executed. The default is the current value
Do not start new tests after the first test failure.
-list regexp
List tests, benchmarks, or examples matching the regular expression.
No tests, benchmarks or examples will be run. This will only
list top-level tests. No subtest or subbenchmarks will be shown.
-parallel n
Allow parallel execution of test functions that call t.Parallel.
The value of this flag is the maximum number of tests to run
simultaneously; by default, it is set to the value of GOMAXPROCS.
Note that -parallel only applies within a single test binary.
The 'go test' command may run tests for different packages
in parallel as well, according to the setting of the -p flag
(see 'go help build').
-run regexp
Run only those tests and examples matching the regular expression.
For tests, the regular expression is split by unbracketed slash (/)
characters into a sequence of regular expressions, and each part
of a test's identifier must match the corresponding element in
the sequence, if any. Note that possible parents of matches are
run too, so that -run=X/Y matches and runs and reports the result
of all tests matching X, even those without sub-tests matching Y,
because it must run them to look for those sub-tests.
Tell long-running tests to shorten their run time.
It is off by default but set during all.bash so that installing
the Go tree can run a sanity check but not spend time running
exhaustive tests.
-timeout d
If a test binary runs longer than duration d, panic.
If d is 0, the timeout is disabled.
The default is 10 minutes (10m).
Verbose output: log all tests as they are run. Also print all
text from Log and Logf calls even if the test succeeds.
-vet list
Configure the invocation of "go vet" during "go test"
to use the comma-separated list of vet checks.
If list is empty, "go test" runs "go vet" with a curated list of
checks believed to be always worth addressing.
If list is "off", "go test" does not run "go vet" at all.
The following flags are also recognized by 'go test' and can be used to
profile the tests during execution:
Print memory allocation statistics for benchmarks.
-blockprofile block.out
Write a goroutine blocking profile to the specified file
when all tests are complete.
Writes test binary as -c would.
-blockprofilerate n
Control the detail provided in goroutine blocking profiles by
calling runtime.SetBlockProfileRate with n.
See 'go doc runtime.SetBlockProfileRate'.
The profiler aims to sample, on average, one blocking event every
n nanoseconds the program spends blocked. By default,
if -test.blockprofile is set without this flag, all blocking events
are recorded, equivalent to -test.blockprofilerate=1.
-coverprofile cover.out
Write a coverage profile to the file after all tests have passed.
Sets -cover.
-cpuprofile cpu.out
Write a CPU profile to the specified file before exiting.
Writes test binary as -c would.
-memprofile mem.out
Write an allocation profile to the file after all tests have passed.
Writes test binary as -c would.
-memprofilerate n
Enable more precise (and expensive) memory allocation profiles by
setting runtime.MemProfileRate. See 'go doc runtime.MemProfileRate'.
To profile all memory allocations, use -test.memprofilerate=1.
-mutexprofile mutex.out
Write a mutex contention profile to the specified file
when all tests are complete.
Writes test binary as -c would.
-mutexprofilefraction n
Sample 1 in n stack traces of goroutines holding a
contended mutex.
-outputdir directory
Place output files from profiling in the specified directory,
by default the directory in which "go test" is running.
-trace trace.out
Write an execution trace to the specified file before exiting.
Each of these flags is also recognized with an optional 'test.' prefix,
as in -test.v. When invoking the generated test binary (the result of
'go test -c') directly, however, the prefix is mandatory.
The 'go test' command rewrites or removes recognized flags,
as appropriate, both before and after the optional package list,
before invoking the test binary.
For instance, the command
go test -v -myflag testdata -cpuprofile=prof.out -x
will compile the test binary and then run it as
pkg.test -test.v -myflag testdata -test.cpuprofile=prof.out
(The -x flag is removed because it applies only to the go command's
execution, not to the test itself.)
The test flags that generate profiles (other than for coverage) also
leave the test binary in pkg.test for use when analyzing the profiles.
When 'go test' runs a test binary, it does so from within the
corresponding package's source code directory. Depending on the test,
it may be necessary to do the same when invoking a generated test
binary directly.
The command-line package list, if present, must appear before any
flag not known to the go test command. Continuing the example above,
the package list would have to appear before -myflag, but could appear
on either side of -v.
When 'go test' runs in package list mode, 'go test' caches successful
package test results to avoid unnecessary repeated running of tests. To
disable test caching, use any test flag or argument other than the
cacheable flags. The idiomatic way to disable test caching explicitly
is to use -count=1.
To keep an argument for a test binary from being interpreted as a
known flag or a package name, use -args (see 'go help test') which
passes the remainder of the command line through to the test binary
uninterpreted and unaltered.
For instance, the command
go test -v -args -x -v
will compile the test binary and then run it as
pkg.test -test.v -x -v
go test -args math
will compile the test binary and then run it as
pkg.test math
In the first example, the -x and the second -v are passed through to the
test binary unchanged and with no effect on the go command itself.
In the second example, the argument math is passed through to the test
binary, instead of being interpreted as the package list.
var HelpTestfunc = &base.Command{
UsageLine: "testfunc",
Short: "testing functions",
Long: `
The 'go test' command expects to find test, benchmark, and example functions
in the "*_test.go" files corresponding to the package under test.
A test function is one named TestXxx (where Xxx does not start with a
lower case letter) and should have the signature,
func TestXxx(t *testing.T) { ... }
A benchmark function is one named BenchmarkXxx and should have the signature,
func BenchmarkXxx(b *testing.B) { ... }
An example function is similar to a test function but, instead of using
*testing.T to report success or failure, prints output to os.Stdout.
If the last comment in the function starts with "Output:" then the output
is compared exactly against the comment (see examples below). If the last
comment begins with "Unordered output:" then the output is compared to the
comment, however the order of the lines is ignored. An example with no such
comment is compiled but not executed. An example with no text after
"Output:" is compiled, executed, and expected to produce no output.
Godoc displays the body of ExampleXxx to demonstrate the use
of the function, constant, or variable Xxx. An example of a method M with
receiver type T or *T is named ExampleT_M. There may be multiple examples
for a given function, constant, or variable, distinguished by a trailing _xxx,
where xxx is a suffix not beginning with an upper case letter.
Here is an example of an example:
func ExamplePrintln() {
Println("The output of\nthis example.")
// Output: The output of
// this example.
Here is another example where the ordering of the output is ignored:
func ExamplePerm() {
for _, value := range Perm(4) {
// Unordered output: 4
// 2
// 1
// 3
// 0
The entire test file is presented as the example when it contains a single
example function, at least one other function, type, variable, or constant
declaration, and no test or benchmark functions.
See the documentation of the testing package for more information.
var (
testC bool // -c flag
testCover bool // -cover flag
testCoverMode string // -covermode flag
testCoverPaths []string // -coverpkg flag
testCoverPkgs []*load.Package // -coverpkg flag
testCoverProfile string // -coverprofile flag
testOutputDir string // -outputdir flag
testO string // -o flag
testProfile string // profiling flag that limits test to one package
testNeedBinary bool // profile needs to keep binary around
testJSON bool // -json flag
testV bool // -v flag
testTimeout string // -timeout flag
testArgs []string
testBench bool
testList bool
testShowPass bool // show passing output
testVetList string // -vet flag
pkgArgs []string
pkgs []*load.Package
testKillTimeout = 10 * time.Minute
testCacheExpire time.Time // ignore cached test results before this time
// testVetFlags is the list of flags to pass to vet when invoked automatically during go test.
var testVetFlags = []string{
// TODO(rsc): Decide which tests are enabled by default.
// See
// "-asmdecl",
// "-assign",
// "-cgocall",
// "-composites",
// "-copylocks",
// "-httpresponse",
// "-lostcancel",
// "-methods",
// "-rangeloops",
// "-shift",
// "-structtags",
// "-tests",
// "-unreachable",
// "-unsafeptr",
// "-unusedresult",
func runTest(cmd *base.Command, args []string) {
modload.LoadTests = true
pkgArgs, testArgs = testFlags(args)
work.FindExecCmd() // initialize cached result
work.VetFlags = testVetFlags
pkgs = load.PackagesForBuild(pkgArgs)
if len(pkgs) == 0 {
base.Fatalf("no packages to test")
if testC && len(pkgs) != 1 {
base.Fatalf("cannot use -c flag with multiple packages")
if testO != "" && len(pkgs) != 1 {
base.Fatalf("cannot use -o flag with multiple packages")
if testProfile != "" && len(pkgs) != 1 {
base.Fatalf("cannot use %s flag with multiple packages", testProfile)
defer closeCoverProfile()
// If a test timeout was given and is parseable, set our kill timeout
// to that timeout plus one minute. This is a backup alarm in case
// the test wedges with a goroutine spinning and its background
// timer does not get a chance to fire.
if dt, err := time.ParseDuration(testTimeout); err == nil && dt > 0 {
testKillTimeout = dt + 1*time.Minute
} else if err == nil && dt == 0 {
// An explicit zero disables the test timeout.
// Let it have one century (almost) before we kill it.
testKillTimeout = 100 * 365 * 24 * time.Hour
// show passing test output (after buffering) with -v flag.
// must buffer because tests are running in parallel, and
// otherwise the output will get mixed.
testShowPass = testV || testList
// For 'go test -i -o x.test', we want to build x.test. Imply -c to make the logic easier.
if cfg.BuildI && testO != "" {
testC = true
// Read testcache expiration time, if present.
// (We implement go clean -testcache by writing an expiration date
// instead of searching out and deleting test result cache entries.)
if dir := cache.DefaultDir(); dir != "off" {
if data, _ := ioutil.ReadFile(filepath.Join(dir, "testexpire.txt")); len(data) > 0 && data[len(data)-1] == '\n' {
if t, err := strconv.ParseInt(string(data[:len(data)-1]), 10, 64); err == nil {
testCacheExpire = time.Unix(0, t)
var b work.Builder
if cfg.BuildI {
cfg.BuildV = testV
deps := make(map[string]bool)
for _, dep := range load.TestMainDeps {
deps[dep] = true
for _, p := range pkgs {
// Dependencies for each test.
for _, path := range p.Imports {
deps[path] = true
for _, path := range p.Resolve(p.TestImports) {
deps[path] = true
for _, path := range p.Resolve(p.XTestImports) {
deps[path] = true
// translate C to runtime/cgo
if deps["C"] {
delete(deps, "C")
deps["runtime/cgo"] = true
// Ignore pseudo-packages.
delete(deps, "unsafe")
all := []string{}
for path := range deps {
if !build.IsLocalImport(path) {
all = append(all, path)
a := &work.Action{Mode: "go test -i"}
for _, p := range load.PackagesForBuild(all) {
if cfg.BuildToolchainName == "gccgo" && p.Standard {
// gccgo's standard library packages
// can not be reinstalled.
a.Deps = append(a.Deps, b.CompileAction(work.ModeInstall, work.ModeInstall, p))
if !testC || a.Failed {
var builds, runs, prints []*work.Action
if testCoverPaths != nil {
match := make([]func(*load.Package) bool, len(testCoverPaths))
matched := make([]bool, len(testCoverPaths))
for i := range testCoverPaths {
match[i] = load.MatchPackage(testCoverPaths[i], base.Cwd)
// Select for coverage all dependencies matching the testCoverPaths patterns.
for _, p := range load.TestPackageList(pkgs) {
haveMatch := false
for i := range testCoverPaths {
if match[i](p) {
matched[i] = true
haveMatch = true
// Silently ignore attempts to run coverage on
// sync/atomic when using atomic coverage mode.
// Atomic coverage mode uses sync/atomic, so
// we can't also do coverage on it.
if testCoverMode == "atomic" && p.Standard && p.ImportPath == "sync/atomic" {
// If using the race detector, silently ignore
// attempts to run coverage on the runtime
// packages. It will cause the race detector
// to be invoked before it has been initialized.
if cfg.BuildRace && p.Standard && (p.ImportPath == "runtime" || strings.HasPrefix(p.ImportPath, "runtime/internal")) {
if haveMatch {
testCoverPkgs = append(testCoverPkgs, p)
// Warn about -coverpkg arguments that are not actually used.
for i := range testCoverPaths {
if !matched[i] {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "warning: no packages being tested depend on matches for pattern %s\n", testCoverPaths[i])
// Mark all the coverage packages for rebuilding with coverage.
for _, p := range testCoverPkgs {
// There is nothing to cover in package unsafe; it comes from the compiler.
if p.ImportPath == "unsafe" {
p.Internal.CoverMode = testCoverMode
var coverFiles []string
coverFiles = append(coverFiles, p.GoFiles...)
coverFiles = append(coverFiles, p.CgoFiles...)
coverFiles = append(coverFiles, p.TestGoFiles...)
p.Internal.CoverVars = declareCoverVars(p, coverFiles...)
if testCover && testCoverMode == "atomic" {
ensureImport(p, "sync/atomic")
// Prepare build + run + print actions for all packages being tested.
for _, p := range pkgs {
// sync/atomic import is inserted by the cover tool. See #18486
if testCover && testCoverMode == "atomic" {
ensureImport(p, "sync/atomic")
buildTest, runTest, printTest, err := builderTest(&b, p)
if err != nil {
str := err.Error()
str = strings.TrimPrefix(str, "\n")
if p.ImportPath != "" {
base.Errorf("# %s\n%s", p.ImportPath, str)
} else {
base.Errorf("%s", str)
fmt.Printf("FAIL\t%s [setup failed]\n", p.ImportPath)
builds = append(builds, buildTest)
runs = append(runs, runTest)
prints = append(prints, printTest)
// Ultimately the goal is to print the output.
root := &work.Action{Mode: "go test", Deps: prints}
// Force the printing of results to happen in order,
// one at a time.
for i, a := range prints {
if i > 0 {
a.Deps = append(a.Deps, prints[i-1])
// Force benchmarks to run in serial.
if !testC && testBench {
// The first run must wait for all builds.
// Later runs must wait for the previous run's print.
for i, run := range runs {
if i == 0 {
run.Deps = append(run.Deps, builds...)
} else {
run.Deps = append(run.Deps, prints[i-1])
// ensures that package p imports the named package
func ensureImport(p *load.Package, pkg string) {
for _, d := range p.Internal.Imports {
if d.Name == pkg {
p1 := load.LoadPackage(pkg, &load.ImportStack{})
if p1.Error != nil {
base.Fatalf("load %s: %v", pkg, p1.Error)
p.Internal.Imports = append(p.Internal.Imports, p1)
var windowsBadWords = []string{
func builderTest(b *work.Builder, p *load.Package) (buildAction, runAction, printAction *work.Action, err error) {
if len(p.TestGoFiles)+len(p.XTestGoFiles) == 0 {
build := b.CompileAction(work.ModeBuild, work.ModeBuild, p)
run := &work.Action{Mode: "test run", Package: p, Deps: []*work.Action{build}}
addTestVet(b, p, run, nil)
print := &work.Action{Mode: "test print", Func: builderNoTest, Package: p, Deps: []*work.Action{run}}
return build, run, print, nil
// Build Package structs describing:
// pmain - pkg.test binary
// ptest - package + test files
// pxtest - package of external test files
var cover *load.TestCover
if testCover {
cover = &load.TestCover{
Mode: testCoverMode,
Local: testCover && testCoverPaths == nil,
Pkgs: testCoverPkgs,
Paths: testCoverPaths,
DeclVars: declareCoverVars,
pmain, ptest, pxtest, err := load.TestPackagesFor(p, cover)
if err != nil {
return nil, nil, nil, err
// Use last element of import path, not package name.
// They differ when package name is "main".
// But if the import path is "command-line-arguments",
// like it is during 'go run', use the package name.
var elem string
if p.ImportPath == "command-line-arguments" {
elem = p.Name
} else {
_, elem = path.Split(p.ImportPath)
testBinary := elem + ".test"
testDir := b.NewObjdir()
if err := b.Mkdir(testDir); err != nil {
return nil, nil, nil, err
pmain.Dir = testDir
pmain.Internal.OmitDebug = !testC && !testNeedBinary
if !cfg.BuildN {
// writeTestmain writes _testmain.go,
// using the test description gathered in t.
if err := ioutil.WriteFile(testDir+"_testmain.go", *pmain.Internal.TestmainGo, 0666); err != nil {
return nil, nil, nil, err
// Set compile objdir to testDir we've already created,
// so that the default file path stripping applies to _testmain.go.
b.CompileAction(work.ModeBuild, work.ModeBuild, pmain).Objdir = testDir
a := b.LinkAction(work.ModeBuild, work.ModeBuild, pmain)
a.Target = testDir + testBinary + cfg.ExeSuffix
if cfg.Goos == "windows" {
// There are many reserved words on Windows that,
// if used in the name of an executable, cause Windows
// to try to ask for extra permissions.
// The word list includes setup, install, update, and patch,
// but it does not appear to be defined anywhere.
// We have run into this trying to run the
// go.codereview/patch tests.
// For package names containing those words, use test.test.exe
// instead of pkgname.test.exe.
// Note that this file name is only used in the Go command's
// temporary directory. If the -c or other flags are
// given, the code below will still use pkgname.test.exe.
// There are two user-visible effects of this change.
// First, you can actually run 'go test' in directories that
// have names that Windows thinks are installer-like,
// without getting a dialog box asking for more permissions.
// Second, in the Windows process listing during go test,
// the test shows up as test.test.exe, not pkgname.test.exe.
// That second one is a drawback, but it seems a small
// price to pay for the test running at all.
// If maintaining the list of bad words is too onerous,
// we could just do this always on Windows.
for _, bad := range windowsBadWords {
if strings.Contains(testBinary, bad) {
a.Target = testDir + "test.test" + cfg.ExeSuffix
buildAction = a
var installAction, cleanAction *work.Action
if testC || testNeedBinary {
// -c or profiling flag: create action to copy binary to ./test.out.
target := filepath.Join(base.Cwd, testBinary+cfg.ExeSuffix)
if testO != "" {
target = testO
if !filepath.IsAbs(target) {
target = filepath.Join(base.Cwd, target)
pmain.Target = target
installAction = &work.Action{
Mode: "test build",
Func: work.BuildInstallFunc,
Deps: []*work.Action{buildAction},
Package: pmain,
Target: target,
runAction = installAction // make sure runAction != nil even if not running test
var vetRunAction *work.Action
if testC {
printAction = &work.Action{Mode: "test print (nop)", Package: p, Deps: []*work.Action{runAction}} // nop
vetRunAction = printAction
} else {
// run test
c := new(runCache)
runAction = &work.Action{
Mode: "test run",
Func: c.builderRunTest,
Deps: []*work.Action{buildAction},
Package: p,
IgnoreFail: true, // run (prepare output) even if build failed
TryCache: c.tryCache,
Objdir: testDir,
vetRunAction = runAction
cleanAction = &work.Action{
Mode: "test clean",
Func: builderCleanTest,
Deps: []*work.Action{runAction},
Package: p,
IgnoreFail: true, // clean even if test failed
Objdir: testDir,
printAction = &work.Action{
Mode: "test print",
Func: builderPrintTest,
Deps: []*work.Action{cleanAction},
Package: p,
IgnoreFail: true, // print even if test failed
if len(ptest.GoFiles)+len(ptest.CgoFiles) > 0 {
addTestVet(b, ptest, vetRunAction, installAction)
if pxtest != nil {
addTestVet(b, pxtest, vetRunAction, installAction)
if installAction != nil {
if runAction != installAction {
installAction.Deps = append(installAction.Deps, runAction)
if cleanAction != nil {
cleanAction.Deps = append(cleanAction.Deps, installAction)
return buildAction, runAction, printAction, nil
func addTestVet(b *work.Builder, p *load.Package, runAction, installAction *work.Action) {
if testVetList == "off" {
vet := b.VetAction(work.ModeBuild, work.ModeBuild, p)
runAction.Deps = append(runAction.Deps, vet)
// Install will clean the build directory.
// Make sure vet runs first.
// The install ordering in b.VetAction does not apply here
// because we are using a custom installAction (created above).
if installAction != nil {
installAction.Deps = append(installAction.Deps, vet)
// isTestFile reports whether the source file is a set of tests and should therefore
// be excluded from coverage analysis.
func isTestFile(file string) bool {
// We don't cover tests, only the code they test.
return strings.HasSuffix(file, "_test.go")
// declareCoverVars attaches the required cover variables names
// to the files, to be used when annotating the files.
func declareCoverVars(p *load.Package, files ...string) map[string]*load.CoverVar {
coverVars := make(map[string]*load.CoverVar)
coverIndex := 0
// We create the cover counters as new top-level variables in the package.
// We need to avoid collisions with user variables (GoCover_0 is unlikely but still)
// and more importantly with dot imports of other covered packages,
// so we append 12 hex digits from the SHA-256 of the import path.
// The point is only to avoid accidents, not to defeat users determined to
// break things.
sum := sha256.Sum256([]byte(p.ImportPath))
h := fmt.Sprintf("%x", sum[:6])
for _, file := range files {
if isTestFile(file) {
// For a package that is "local" (imported via ./ import or command line, outside GOPATH),
// we record the full path to the file name.
// Otherwise we record the import path, then a forward slash, then the file name.
// This makes profiles within GOPATH file system-independent.
// These names appear in the cmd/cover HTML interface.
var longFile string
if p.Internal.Local {
longFile = filepath.Join(p.Dir, file)
} else {
longFile = path.Join(p.ImportPath, file)
coverVars[file] = &load.CoverVar{
File: longFile,
Var: fmt.Sprintf("GoCover_%d_%x", coverIndex, h),
return coverVars
var noTestsToRun = []byte("\ntesting: warning: no tests to run\n")
type runCache struct {
disableCache bool // cache should be disabled for this run
buf *bytes.Buffer
id1 cache.ActionID
id2 cache.ActionID
// stdoutMu and lockedStdout provide a locked standard output
// that guarantees never to interlace writes from multiple
// goroutines, so that we can have multiple JSON streams writing
// to a lockedStdout simultaneously and know that events will
// still be intelligible.
var stdoutMu sync.Mutex
type lockedStdout struct{}
func (lockedStdout) Write(b []byte) (int, error) {
defer stdoutMu.Unlock()
return os.Stdout.Write(b)
// builderRunTest is the action for running a test binary.
func (c *runCache) builderRunTest(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action) error {
if a.Failed {
// We were unable to build the binary.
a.Failed = false
a.TestOutput = new(bytes.Buffer)
fmt.Fprintf(a.TestOutput, "FAIL\t%s [build failed]\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return nil
var stdout io.Writer = os.Stdout
if testJSON {
json := test2json.NewConverter(lockedStdout{}, a.Package.ImportPath, test2json.Timestamp)
defer json.Close()
stdout = json
var buf bytes.Buffer
if len(pkgArgs) == 0 || testBench {
// Stream test output (no buffering) when no package has
// been given on the command line (implicit current directory)
// or when benchmarking.
// No change to stdout.
} else {
// If we're only running a single package under test or if parallelism is
// set to 1, and if we're displaying all output (testShowPass), we can
// hurry the output along, echoing it as soon as it comes in.
// We still have to copy to &buf for caching the result. This special
// case was introduced in Go 1.5 and is intentionally undocumented:
// the exact details of output buffering are up to the go command and
// subject to change. It would be nice to remove this special case
// entirely, but it is surely very helpful to see progress being made
// when tests are run on slow single-CPU ARM systems.
// If we're showing JSON output, then display output as soon as
// possible even when multiple tests are being run: the JSON output
// events are attributed to specific package tests, so interlacing them
// is OK.
if testShowPass && (len(pkgs) == 1 || cfg.BuildP == 1) || testJSON {
// Write both to stdout and buf, for possible saving
// to cache, and for looking for the "no tests to run" message.
stdout = io.MultiWriter(stdout, &buf)
} else {
stdout = &buf
if c.buf == nil {
// We did not find a cached result using the link step action ID,
// so we ran the link step. Try again now with the link output
// content ID. The attempt using the action ID makes sure that
// if the link inputs don't change, we reuse the cached test
// result without even rerunning the linker. The attempt using
// the link output (test binary) content ID makes sure that if
// we have different link inputs but the same final binary,
// we still reuse the cached test result.
// c.saveOutput will store the result under both IDs.
c.tryCacheWithID(b, a, a.Deps[0].BuildContentID())
if c.buf != nil {
if stdout != &buf {
a.TestOutput = c.buf
return nil
execCmd := work.FindExecCmd()
testlogArg := []string{}
if !c.disableCache && len(execCmd) == 0 {
testlogArg = []string{"-test.testlogfile=" + a.Objdir + "testlog.txt"}
args := str.StringList(execCmd, a.Deps[0].BuiltTarget(), testlogArg, testArgs)
if testCoverProfile != "" {
// Write coverage to temporary profile, for merging later.
for i, arg := range args {
if strings.HasPrefix(arg, "-test.coverprofile=") {
args[i] = "-test.coverprofile=" + a.Objdir + "_cover_.out"
if cfg.BuildN || cfg.BuildX {
b.Showcmd("", "%s", strings.Join(args, " "))
if cfg.BuildN {
return nil
cmd := exec.Command(args[0], args[1:]...)
cmd.Dir = a.Package.Dir
cmd.Env = base.EnvForDir(cmd.Dir, cfg.OrigEnv)
cmd.Stdout = stdout
cmd.Stderr = stdout
// If there are any local SWIG dependencies, we want to load
// the shared library from the build directory.
if a.Package.UsesSwig() {
env := cmd.Env
found := false
prefix := "LD_LIBRARY_PATH="
for i, v := range env {
if strings.HasPrefix(v, prefix) {
env[i] = v + ":."
found = true
if !found {
env = append(env, "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=.")
cmd.Env = env
t0 := time.Now()
err := cmd.Start()
// This is a last-ditch deadline to detect and
// stop wedged test binaries, to keep the builders
// running.
if err == nil {
tick := time.NewTimer(testKillTimeout)
done := make(chan error)
go func() {
done <- cmd.Wait()
select {
case err = <-done:
// ok
case <-tick.C:
if base.SignalTrace != nil {
// Send a quit signal in the hope that the program will print
// a stack trace and exit. Give it five seconds before resorting
// to Kill.
select {
case err = <-done:
fmt.Fprintf(cmd.Stdout, "*** Test killed with %v: ran too long (%v).\n", base.SignalTrace, testKillTimeout)
break Outer
case <-time.After(5 * time.Second):
err = <-done
fmt.Fprintf(cmd.Stdout, "*** Test killed: ran too long (%v).\n", testKillTimeout)
out := buf.Bytes()
a.TestOutput = &buf
t := fmt.Sprintf("%.3fs", time.Since(t0).Seconds())
mergeCoverProfile(cmd.Stdout, a.Objdir+"_cover_.out")
if err == nil {
norun := ""
if !testShowPass && !testJSON {
if bytes.HasPrefix(out, noTestsToRun[1:]) || bytes.Contains(out, noTestsToRun) {
norun = " [no tests to run]"
fmt.Fprintf(cmd.Stdout, "ok \t%s\t%s%s%s\n", a.Package.ImportPath, t, coveragePercentage(out), norun)
} else {
// If there was test output, assume we don't need to print the exit status.
// Buf there's no test output, do print the exit status.
if len(out) == 0 {
fmt.Fprintf(cmd.Stdout, "%s\n", err)
fmt.Fprintf(cmd.Stdout, "FAIL\t%s\t%s\n", a.Package.ImportPath, t)
if cmd.Stdout != &buf {
buf.Reset() // cmd.Stdout was going to os.Stdout already
return nil
// tryCache is called just before the link attempt,
// to see if the test result is cached and therefore the link is unneeded.
// It reports whether the result can be satisfied from cache.
func (c *runCache) tryCache(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action) bool {
return c.tryCacheWithID(b, a, a.Deps[0].BuildActionID())
func (c *runCache) tryCacheWithID(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action, id string) bool {
if len(pkgArgs) == 0 {
// Caching does not apply to "go test",
// only to "go test foo" (including "go test .").
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: caching disabled in local directory mode\n")
c.disableCache = true
return false
var cacheArgs []string
for _, arg := range testArgs {
i := strings.Index(arg, "=")
if i < 0 || !strings.HasPrefix(arg, "-test.") {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: caching disabled for test argument: %s\n", arg)
c.disableCache = true
return false
switch arg[:i] {
case "-test.cpu",
// These are cacheable.
// Note that this list is documented above,
// so if you add to this list, update the docs too.
cacheArgs = append(cacheArgs, arg)
case "-test.timeout":
// Special case: this is cacheable but ignored during the hash.
// Do not add to cacheArgs.
// nothing else is cacheable
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: caching disabled for test argument: %s\n", arg)
c.disableCache = true
return false
if cache.Default() == nil {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: GOCACHE=off\n")
c.disableCache = true
return false
// The test cache result fetch is a two-level lookup.
// First, we use the content hash of the test binary
// and its command-line arguments to find the
// list of environment variables and files consulted
// the last time the test was run with those arguments.
// (To avoid unnecessary links, we store this entry
// under two hashes: id1 uses the linker inputs as a
// proxy for the test binary, and id2 uses the actual
// test binary. If the linker inputs are unchanged,
// this way we avoid the link step, even though we
// do not cache link outputs.)
// Second, we compute a hash of the values of the
// environment variables and the content of the files
// listed in the log from the previous run.
// Then we look up test output using a combination of
// the hash from the first part (testID) and the hash of the
// test inputs (testInputsID).
// In order to store a new test result, we must redo the
// testInputsID computation using the log from the run
// we want to cache, and then we store that new log and
// the new outputs.
h := cache.NewHash("testResult")
fmt.Fprintf(h, "test binary %s args %q execcmd %q", id, cacheArgs, work.ExecCmd)
testID := h.Sum()
if c.id1 == (cache.ActionID{}) {
c.id1 = testID
} else {
c.id2 = testID
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test ID %x => %x\n", a.Package.ImportPath, id, testID)
// Load list of referenced environment variables and files
// from last run of testID, and compute hash of that content.
data, entry, err := cache.Default().GetBytes(testID)
if !bytes.HasPrefix(data, testlogMagic) || data[len(data)-1] != '\n' {
if cache.DebugTest {
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: input list not found: %v\n", a.Package.ImportPath, err)
} else {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: input list malformed\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return false
testInputsID, err := computeTestInputsID(a, data)
if err != nil {
return false
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test ID %x => input ID %x => %x\n", a.Package.ImportPath, testID, testInputsID, testAndInputKey(testID, testInputsID))
// Parse cached result in preparation for changing run time to "(cached)".
// If we can't parse the cached result, don't use it.
data, entry, err = cache.Default().GetBytes(testAndInputKey(testID, testInputsID))
if len(data) == 0 || data[len(data)-1] != '\n' {
if cache.DebugTest {
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test output not found: %v\n", a.Package.ImportPath, err)
} else {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test output malformed\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return false
if entry.Time.Before(testCacheExpire) {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test output expired due to go clean -testcache\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return false
i := bytes.LastIndexByte(data[:len(data)-1], '\n') + 1
if !bytes.HasPrefix(data[i:], []byte("ok \t")) {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test output malformed\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return false
j := bytes.IndexByte(data[i+len("ok \t"):], '\t')
if j < 0 {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: test output malformed\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return false
j += i + len("ok \t") + 1
// Committed to printing.
c.buf = new(bytes.Buffer)
for j < len(data) && ('0' <= data[j] && data[j] <= '9' || data[j] == '.' || data[j] == 's') {
return true
var errBadTestInputs = errors.New("error parsing test inputs")
var testlogMagic = []byte("# test log\n") // known to testing/internal/testdeps/deps.go
// computeTestInputsID computes the "test inputs ID"
// (see comment in tryCacheWithID above) for the
// test log.
func computeTestInputsID(a *work.Action, testlog []byte) (cache.ActionID, error) {
testlog = bytes.TrimPrefix(testlog, testlogMagic)
h := cache.NewHash("testInputs")
pwd := a.Package.Dir
for _, line := range bytes.Split(testlog, []byte("\n")) {
if len(line) == 0 {
s := string(line)
i := strings.Index(s, " ")
if i < 0 {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: input list malformed (%q)\n", a.Package.ImportPath, line)
return cache.ActionID{}, errBadTestInputs
op := s[:i]
name := s[i+1:]
switch op {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: input list malformed (%q)\n", a.Package.ImportPath, line)
return cache.ActionID{}, errBadTestInputs
case "getenv":
fmt.Fprintf(h, "env %s %x\n", name, hashGetenv(name))
case "chdir":
pwd = name // always absolute
fmt.Fprintf(h, "chdir %s %x\n", name, hashStat(name))
case "stat":
if !filepath.IsAbs(name) {
name = filepath.Join(pwd, name)
if !inDir(name, a.Package.Root) {
// Do not recheck files outside the GOPATH or GOROOT root.
fmt.Fprintf(h, "stat %s %x\n", name, hashStat(name))
case "open":
if !filepath.IsAbs(name) {
name = filepath.Join(pwd, name)
if !inDir(name, a.Package.Root) {
// Do not recheck files outside the GOPATH or GOROOT root.
fh, err := hashOpen(name)
if err != nil {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: input file %s: %s\n", a.Package.ImportPath, name, err)
return cache.ActionID{}, err
fmt.Fprintf(h, "open %s %x\n", name, fh)
sum := h.Sum()
return sum, nil
func inDir(path, dir string) bool {
if str.HasFilePathPrefix(path, dir) {
return true
xpath, err1 := filepath.EvalSymlinks(path)
xdir, err2 := filepath.EvalSymlinks(dir)
if err1 == nil && err2 == nil && str.HasFilePathPrefix(xpath, xdir) {
return true
return false
func hashGetenv(name string) cache.ActionID {
h := cache.NewHash("getenv")
v, ok := os.LookupEnv(name)
if !ok {
} else {
return h.Sum()
const modTimeCutoff = 2 * time.Second
var errFileTooNew = errors.New("file used as input is too new")
func hashOpen(name string) (cache.ActionID, error) {
h := cache.NewHash("open")
info, err := os.Stat(name)
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "err %v\n", err)
return h.Sum(), nil
hashWriteStat(h, info)
if info.IsDir() {
names, err := ioutil.ReadDir(name)
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "err %v\n", err)
for _, f := range names {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "file %s ", f.Name())
hashWriteStat(h, f)
} else if info.Mode().IsRegular() {
// Because files might be very large, do not attempt
// to hash the entirety of their content. Instead assume
// the mtime and size recorded in hashWriteStat above
// are good enough.
// To avoid problems for very recent files where a new
// write might not change the mtime due to file system
// mtime precision, reject caching if a file was read that
// is less than modTimeCutoff old.
if time.Since(info.ModTime()) < modTimeCutoff {
return cache.ActionID{}, errFileTooNew
return h.Sum(), nil
func hashStat(name string) cache.ActionID {
h := cache.NewHash("stat")
if info, err := os.Stat(name); err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "err %v\n", err)
} else {
hashWriteStat(h, info)
if info, err := os.Lstat(name); err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "err %v\n", err)
} else {
hashWriteStat(h, info)
return h.Sum()
func hashWriteStat(h io.Writer, info os.FileInfo) {
fmt.Fprintf(h, "stat %d %x %v %v\n", info.Size(), uint64(info.Mode()), info.ModTime(), info.IsDir())
// testAndInputKey returns the actual cache key for the pair (testID, testInputsID).
func testAndInputKey(testID, testInputsID cache.ActionID) cache.ActionID {
return cache.Subkey(testID, fmt.Sprintf("inputs:%x", testInputsID))
func (c *runCache) saveOutput(a *work.Action) {
if c.id1 == (cache.ActionID{}) && c.id2 == (cache.ActionID{}) {
// See comment about two-level lookup in tryCacheWithID above.
testlog, err := ioutil.ReadFile(a.Objdir + "testlog.txt")
if err != nil || !bytes.HasPrefix(testlog, testlogMagic) || testlog[len(testlog)-1] != '\n' {
if cache.DebugTest {
if err != nil {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: reading testlog: %v\n", a.Package.ImportPath, err)
} else {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: reading testlog: malformed\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
testInputsID, err := computeTestInputsID(a, testlog)
if err != nil {
if c.id1 != (cache.ActionID{}) {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: save test ID %x => input ID %x => %x\n", a.Package.ImportPath, c.id1, testInputsID, testAndInputKey(c.id1, testInputsID))
cache.Default().PutNoVerify(c.id1, bytes.NewReader(testlog))
cache.Default().PutNoVerify(testAndInputKey(c.id1, testInputsID), bytes.NewReader(a.TestOutput.Bytes()))
if c.id2 != (cache.ActionID{}) {
if cache.DebugTest {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "testcache: %s: save test ID %x => input ID %x => %x\n", a.Package.ImportPath, c.id2, testInputsID, testAndInputKey(c.id2, testInputsID))
cache.Default().PutNoVerify(c.id2, bytes.NewReader(testlog))
cache.Default().PutNoVerify(testAndInputKey(c.id2, testInputsID), bytes.NewReader(a.TestOutput.Bytes()))
// coveragePercentage returns the coverage results (if enabled) for the
// test. It uncovers the data by scanning the output from the test run.
func coveragePercentage(out []byte) string {
if !testCover {
return ""
// The string looks like
// test coverage for encoding/binary: 79.9% of statements
// Extract the piece from the percentage to the end of the line.
re := regexp.MustCompile(`coverage: (.*)\n`)
matches := re.FindSubmatch(out)
if matches == nil {
// Probably running "go test -cover" not "go test -cover fmt".
// The coverage output will appear in the output directly.
return ""
return fmt.Sprintf("\tcoverage: %s", matches[1])
// builderCleanTest is the action for cleaning up after a test.
func builderCleanTest(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action) error {
if cfg.BuildWork {
return nil
if cfg.BuildX {
b.Showcmd("", "rm -r %s", a.Objdir)
return nil
// builderPrintTest is the action for printing a test result.
func builderPrintTest(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action) error {
clean := a.Deps[0]
run := clean.Deps[0]
if run.TestOutput != nil {
run.TestOutput = nil
return nil
// builderNoTest is the action for testing a package with no test files.
func builderNoTest(b *work.Builder, a *work.Action) error {
var stdout io.Writer = os.Stdout
if testJSON {
json := test2json.NewConverter(lockedStdout{}, a.Package.ImportPath, test2json.Timestamp)
defer json.Close()
stdout = json
fmt.Fprintf(stdout, "? \t%s\t[no test files]\n", a.Package.ImportPath)
return nil