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// Copyright 2014 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
//go:build darwin && !ios
package app
// Simple on-screen app debugging for OS X. Not an officially supported
// development target for apps, as screens with mice are very different
// than screens with touch panels.
#cgo LDFLAGS: -framework Cocoa -framework OpenGL
#import <Carbon/Carbon.h> // for HIToolbox/Events.h
#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
#include <pthread.h>
void runApp(void);
void stopApp(void);
void makeCurrentContext(GLintptr);
uint64 threadID();
import "C"
import (
var initThreadID uint64
func init() {
// Lock the goroutine responsible for initialization to an OS thread.
// This means the goroutine running main (and calling runApp below)
// is locked to the OS thread that started the program. This is
// necessary for the correct delivery of Cocoa events to the process.
// A discussion on this topic:
initThreadID = uint64(C.threadID())
func main(f func(App)) {
if tid := uint64(C.threadID()); tid != initThreadID {
log.Fatalf("app.Main called on thread %d, but app.init ran on %d", tid, initThreadID)
go func() {
// loop is the primary drawing loop.
// After Cocoa has captured the initial OS thread for processing Cocoa
// events in runApp, it starts loop on another goroutine. It is locked
// to an OS thread for its OpenGL context.
// The loop processes GL calls until a publish event appears.
// Then it runs any remaining GL calls and flushes the screen.
// As NSOpenGLCPSwapInterval is set to 1, the call to CGLFlushDrawable
// blocks until the screen refresh.
func (a *app) loop(ctx C.GLintptr) {
workAvailable := a.worker.WorkAvailable()
for {
select {
case <-workAvailable:
case <-theApp.publish:
for {
select {
case <-workAvailable:
break loop1
theApp.publishResult <- PublishResult{}
select {
case drawDone <- struct{}{}:
var drawDone = make(chan struct{})
// drawgl is used by Cocoa to occasionally request screen updates.
//export drawgl
func drawgl() {
switch theApp.lifecycleStage {
case lifecycle.StageFocused, lifecycle.StageVisible:
External: true,
//export startloop
func startloop(ctx C.GLintptr) {
go theApp.loop(ctx)
var windowHeightPx float32
//export setGeom
func setGeom(pixelsPerPt float32, widthPx, heightPx int) {
windowHeightPx = float32(heightPx)
theApp.eventsIn <- size.Event{
WidthPx: widthPx,
HeightPx: heightPx,
WidthPt: geom.Pt(float32(widthPx) / pixelsPerPt),
HeightPt: geom.Pt(float32(heightPx) / pixelsPerPt),
PixelsPerPt: pixelsPerPt,
var touchEvents struct {
pending []touch.Event
func sendTouch(t touch.Type, x, y float32) {
theApp.eventsIn <- touch.Event{
X: x,
Y: windowHeightPx - y,
Sequence: 0,
Type: t,
//export eventMouseDown
func eventMouseDown(x, y float32) { sendTouch(touch.TypeBegin, x, y) }
//export eventMouseDragged
func eventMouseDragged(x, y float32) { sendTouch(touch.TypeMove, x, y) }
//export eventMouseEnd
func eventMouseEnd(x, y float32) { sendTouch(touch.TypeEnd, x, y) }
//export lifecycleDead
func lifecycleDead() { theApp.sendLifecycle(lifecycle.StageDead) }
//export eventKey
func eventKey(runeVal int32, direction uint8, code uint16, flags uint32) {
var modifiers key.Modifiers
for _, mod := range mods {
if flags&mod.flags == mod.flags {
modifiers |= mod.mod
theApp.eventsIn <- key.Event{
Rune: convRune(rune(runeVal)),
Code: convVirtualKeyCode(code),
Modifiers: modifiers,
Direction: key.Direction(direction),
//export eventFlags
func eventFlags(flags uint32) {
for _, mod := range mods {
if flags&mod.flags == mod.flags && lastFlags&mod.flags != mod.flags {
eventKey(-1, uint8(key.DirPress), mod.code, flags)
if lastFlags&mod.flags == mod.flags && flags&mod.flags != mod.flags {
eventKey(-1, uint8(key.DirRelease), mod.code, flags)
lastFlags = flags
var lastFlags uint32
var mods = [...]struct {
flags uint32
code uint16
mod key.Modifiers
// Left and right variants of modifier keys have their own masks,
// but they are not documented. These were determined empirically.
{1<<17 | 0x102, C.kVK_Shift, key.ModShift},
{1<<17 | 0x104, C.kVK_RightShift, key.ModShift},
{1<<18 | 0x101, C.kVK_Control, key.ModControl},
// TODO key.ControlRight
{1<<19 | 0x120, C.kVK_Option, key.ModAlt},
{1<<19 | 0x140, C.kVK_RightOption, key.ModAlt},
{1<<20 | 0x108, C.kVK_Command, key.ModMeta},
{1<<20 | 0x110, C.kVK_Command, key.ModMeta}, // TODO: missing kVK_RightCommand
//export lifecycleAlive
func lifecycleAlive() { theApp.sendLifecycle(lifecycle.StageAlive) }
//export lifecycleVisible
func lifecycleVisible() {
//export lifecycleFocused
func lifecycleFocused() { theApp.sendLifecycle(lifecycle.StageFocused) }
// convRune marks the Carbon/Cocoa private-range unicode rune representing
// a non-unicode key event to -1, used for Rune in the key package.
func convRune(r rune) rune {
if '\uE000' <= r && r <= '\uF8FF' {
return -1
return r
// convVirtualKeyCode converts a Carbon/Cocoa virtual key code number
// into the standard keycodes used by the key package.
// To get a sense of the key map, see the diagram on
func convVirtualKeyCode(vkcode uint16) key.Code {
switch vkcode {
case C.kVK_ANSI_A:
return key.CodeA
case C.kVK_ANSI_B:
return key.CodeB
case C.kVK_ANSI_C:
return key.CodeC
case C.kVK_ANSI_D:
return key.CodeD
case C.kVK_ANSI_E:
return key.CodeE
case C.kVK_ANSI_F:
return key.CodeF
case C.kVK_ANSI_G:
return key.CodeG
case C.kVK_ANSI_H:
return key.CodeH
case C.kVK_ANSI_I:
return key.CodeI
case C.kVK_ANSI_J:
return key.CodeJ
case C.kVK_ANSI_K:
return key.CodeK
case C.kVK_ANSI_L:
return key.CodeL
case C.kVK_ANSI_M:
return key.CodeM
case C.kVK_ANSI_N:
return key.CodeN
case C.kVK_ANSI_O:
return key.CodeO
case C.kVK_ANSI_P:
return key.CodeP
case C.kVK_ANSI_Q:
return key.CodeQ
case C.kVK_ANSI_R:
return key.CodeR
case C.kVK_ANSI_S:
return key.CodeS
case C.kVK_ANSI_T:
return key.CodeT
case C.kVK_ANSI_U:
return key.CodeU
case C.kVK_ANSI_V:
return key.CodeV
case C.kVK_ANSI_W:
return key.CodeW
case C.kVK_ANSI_X:
return key.CodeX
case C.kVK_ANSI_Y:
return key.CodeY
case C.kVK_ANSI_Z:
return key.CodeZ
case C.kVK_ANSI_1:
return key.Code1
case C.kVK_ANSI_2:
return key.Code2
case C.kVK_ANSI_3:
return key.Code3
case C.kVK_ANSI_4:
return key.Code4
case C.kVK_ANSI_5:
return key.Code5
case C.kVK_ANSI_6:
return key.Code6
case C.kVK_ANSI_7:
return key.Code7
case C.kVK_ANSI_8:
return key.Code8
case C.kVK_ANSI_9:
return key.Code9
case C.kVK_ANSI_0:
return key.Code0
// TODO: move the rest of these codes to constants in key.go
// if we are happy with them.
case C.kVK_Return:
return key.CodeReturnEnter
case C.kVK_Escape:
return key.CodeEscape
case C.kVK_Delete:
return key.CodeDeleteBackspace
case C.kVK_Tab:
return key.CodeTab
case C.kVK_Space:
return key.CodeSpacebar
case C.kVK_ANSI_Minus:
return key.CodeHyphenMinus
case C.kVK_ANSI_Equal:
return key.CodeEqualSign
case C.kVK_ANSI_LeftBracket:
return key.CodeLeftSquareBracket
case C.kVK_ANSI_RightBracket:
return key.CodeRightSquareBracket
case C.kVK_ANSI_Backslash:
return key.CodeBackslash
// 50: Keyboard Non-US "#" and ~
case C.kVK_ANSI_Semicolon:
return key.CodeSemicolon
case C.kVK_ANSI_Quote:
return key.CodeApostrophe
case C.kVK_ANSI_Grave:
return key.CodeGraveAccent
case C.kVK_ANSI_Comma:
return key.CodeComma
case C.kVK_ANSI_Period:
return key.CodeFullStop
case C.kVK_ANSI_Slash:
return key.CodeSlash
case C.kVK_CapsLock:
return key.CodeCapsLock
case C.kVK_F1:
return key.CodeF1
case C.kVK_F2:
return key.CodeF2
case C.kVK_F3:
return key.CodeF3
case C.kVK_F4:
return key.CodeF4
case C.kVK_F5:
return key.CodeF5
case C.kVK_F6:
return key.CodeF6
case C.kVK_F7:
return key.CodeF7
case C.kVK_F8:
return key.CodeF8
case C.kVK_F9:
return key.CodeF9
case C.kVK_F10:
return key.CodeF10
case C.kVK_F11:
return key.CodeF11
case C.kVK_F12:
return key.CodeF12
// 70: PrintScreen
// 71: Scroll Lock
// 72: Pause
// 73: Insert
case C.kVK_Home:
return key.CodeHome
case C.kVK_PageUp:
return key.CodePageUp
case C.kVK_ForwardDelete:
return key.CodeDeleteForward
case C.kVK_End:
return key.CodeEnd
case C.kVK_PageDown:
return key.CodePageDown
case C.kVK_RightArrow:
return key.CodeRightArrow
case C.kVK_LeftArrow:
return key.CodeLeftArrow
case C.kVK_DownArrow:
return key.CodeDownArrow
case C.kVK_UpArrow:
return key.CodeUpArrow
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadClear:
return key.CodeKeypadNumLock
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadDivide:
return key.CodeKeypadSlash
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadMultiply:
return key.CodeKeypadAsterisk
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadMinus:
return key.CodeKeypadHyphenMinus
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadPlus:
return key.CodeKeypadPlusSign
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadEnter:
return key.CodeKeypadEnter
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad1:
return key.CodeKeypad1
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad2:
return key.CodeKeypad2
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad3:
return key.CodeKeypad3
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad4:
return key.CodeKeypad4
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad5:
return key.CodeKeypad5
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad6:
return key.CodeKeypad6
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad7:
return key.CodeKeypad7
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad8:
return key.CodeKeypad8
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad9:
return key.CodeKeypad9
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad0:
return key.CodeKeypad0
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadDecimal:
return key.CodeKeypadFullStop
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadEquals:
return key.CodeKeypadEqualSign
case C.kVK_F13:
return key.CodeF13
case C.kVK_F14:
return key.CodeF14
case C.kVK_F15:
return key.CodeF15
case C.kVK_F16:
return key.CodeF16
case C.kVK_F17:
return key.CodeF17
case C.kVK_F18:
return key.CodeF18
case C.kVK_F19:
return key.CodeF19
case C.kVK_F20:
return key.CodeF20
// 116: Keyboard Execute
case C.kVK_Help:
return key.CodeHelp
// 118: Keyboard Menu
// 119: Keyboard Select
// 120: Keyboard Stop
// 121: Keyboard Again
// 122: Keyboard Undo
// 123: Keyboard Cut
// 124: Keyboard Copy
// 125: Keyboard Paste
// 126: Keyboard Find
case C.kVK_Mute:
return key.CodeMute
case C.kVK_VolumeUp:
return key.CodeVolumeUp
case C.kVK_VolumeDown:
return key.CodeVolumeDown
// 130: Keyboard Locking Caps Lock
// 131: Keyboard Locking Num Lock
// 132: Keyboard Locking Scroll Lock
// 133: Keyboard Comma
// 134: Keyboard Equal Sign
// ...: Bunch of stuff
case C.kVK_Control:
return key.CodeLeftControl
case C.kVK_Shift:
return key.CodeLeftShift
case C.kVK_Option:
return key.CodeLeftAlt
case C.kVK_Command:
return key.CodeLeftGUI
case C.kVK_RightControl:
return key.CodeRightControl
case C.kVK_RightShift:
return key.CodeRightShift
case C.kVK_RightOption:
return key.CodeRightAlt
// TODO key.CodeRightGUI
return key.CodeUnknown