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// Copyright 2019 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Address range data structure.
// This file contains an implementation of a data structure which
// manages ordered address ranges.
package runtime
import (
// addrRange represents a region of address space.
type addrRange struct {
// base and limit together represent the region of address space
// [base, limit). That is, base is inclusive, limit is exclusive.
base, limit uintptr
// size returns the size of the range represented in bytes.
func (a addrRange) size() uintptr {
if a.limit <= a.base {
return 0
return a.limit - a.base
// contains returns whether or not the range contains a given address.
func (a addrRange) contains(addr uintptr) bool {
return addr >= a.base && addr < a.limit
// subtract takes the addrRange toPrune and cuts out any overlap with
// from, then returns the new range. subtract assumes that a and b
// either don't overlap at all, only overlap on one side, or are equal.
// If b is strictly contained in a, thus forcing a split, it will throw.
func (a addrRange) subtract(b addrRange) addrRange {
if a.base >= b.base && a.limit <= b.limit {
return addrRange{}
} else if a.base < b.base && a.limit > b.limit {
throw("bad prune")
} else if a.limit > b.limit && a.base < b.limit {
a.base = b.limit
} else if a.base < b.base && a.limit > b.base {
a.limit = b.base
return a
// addrRanges is a data structure holding a collection of ranges of
// address space.
// The ranges are coalesced eagerly to reduce the
// number ranges it holds.
// The slice backing store for this field is persistentalloc'd
// and thus there is no way to free it.
// addrRanges is not thread-safe.
type addrRanges struct {
// ranges is a slice of ranges sorted by base.
ranges []addrRange
// sysStat is the stat to track allocations by this type
sysStat *uint64
func (a *addrRanges) init(sysStat *uint64) {
ranges := (*notInHeapSlice)(unsafe.Pointer(&a.ranges))
ranges.len = 0
ranges.cap = 16
ranges.array = (*notInHeap)(persistentalloc(unsafe.Sizeof(addrRange{})*uintptr(ranges.cap), sys.PtrSize, sysStat))
a.sysStat = sysStat
// findSucc returns the first index in a such that base is
// less than the base of the addrRange at that index.
func (a *addrRanges) findSucc(base uintptr) int {
// TODO(mknyszek): Consider a binary search for large arrays.
// While iterating over these ranges is potentially expensive,
// the expected number of ranges is small, ideally just 1,
// since Go heaps are usually mostly contiguous.
for i := range a.ranges {
if base < a.ranges[i].base {
return i
return len(a.ranges)
// contains returns true if a covers the address addr.
func (a *addrRanges) contains(addr uintptr) bool {
i := a.findSucc(addr)
if i == 0 {
return false
return a.ranges[i-1].contains(addr)
// add inserts a new address range to a.
// r must not overlap with any address range in a.
func (a *addrRanges) add(r addrRange) {
// The copies in this function are potentially expensive, but this data
// structure is meant to represent the Go heap. At worst, copying this
// would take ~160µs assuming a conservative copying rate of 25 GiB/s (the
// copy will almost never trigger a page fault) for a 1 TiB heap with 4 MiB
// arenas which is completely discontiguous. ~160µs is still a lot, but in
// practice most platforms have 64 MiB arenas (which cuts this by a factor
// of 16) and Go heaps are usually mostly contiguous, so the chance that
// an addrRanges even grows to that size is extremely low.
// Because we assume r is not currently represented in a,
// findSucc gives us our insertion index.
i := a.findSucc(r.base)
coalescesDown := i > 0 && a.ranges[i-1].limit == r.base
coalescesUp := i < len(a.ranges) && r.limit == a.ranges[i].base
if coalescesUp && coalescesDown {
// We have neighbors and they both border us.
// Merge a.ranges[i-1], r, and a.ranges[i] together into a.ranges[i-1].
a.ranges[i-1].limit = a.ranges[i].limit
// Delete a.ranges[i].
copy(a.ranges[i:], a.ranges[i+1:])
a.ranges = a.ranges[:len(a.ranges)-1]
} else if coalescesDown {
// We have a neighbor at a lower address only and it borders us.
// Merge the new space into a.ranges[i-1].
a.ranges[i-1].limit = r.limit
} else if coalescesUp {
// We have a neighbor at a higher address only and it borders us.
// Merge the new space into a.ranges[i].
a.ranges[i].base = r.base
} else {
// We may or may not have neighbors which don't border us.
// Add the new range.
if len(a.ranges)+1 > cap(a.ranges) {
// Grow the array. Note that this leaks the old array, but since
// we're doubling we have at most 2x waste. For a 1 TiB heap and
// 4 MiB arenas which are all discontiguous (both very conservative
// assumptions), this would waste at most 4 MiB of memory.
oldRanges := a.ranges
ranges := (*notInHeapSlice)(unsafe.Pointer(&a.ranges))
ranges.len = len(oldRanges) + 1
ranges.cap = cap(oldRanges) * 2
ranges.array = (*notInHeap)(persistentalloc(unsafe.Sizeof(addrRange{})*uintptr(ranges.cap), sys.PtrSize, a.sysStat))
// Copy in the old array, but make space for the new range.
copy(a.ranges[:i], oldRanges[:i])
copy(a.ranges[i+1:], oldRanges[i:])
} else {
a.ranges = a.ranges[:len(a.ranges)+1]
copy(a.ranges[i+1:], a.ranges[i:])
a.ranges[i] = r