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<!-- Release History -->
<h2 id="Releases">Release History</h2>
<p>This page summarizes the changes between tagged releases of Go.
For full details, see the <a href="">Mercurial change log</a>.</p>
<h3 id="2010-03-30">2010-03-30</h3>
This release contains three language changes:
1. Accessing a non-existent key in a map is no longer a run-time error.
It now evaluates to the zero value for that type. For example:
x := myMap[i] is now equivalent to: x, _ := myMap[i]
2. It is now legal to take the address of a function's return value.
The return values are copied back to the caller only after deferred
functions have run.
3. The functions panic and recover, intended for reporting and recovering from
failure, have been added to the spec:
In a related change, panicln is gone, and panic is now a single-argument
function. Panic and recover are recognized by the gc compilers but the new
behavior is not yet implemented.
The ARM build is broken in this release; ARM users should stay at release.2010-03-22.
Other changes:
* bytes, strings: add IndexAny.
* cc/ld: Add support for #pragma dynexport,
Rename dynld to dynimport throughout. Cgo users will need to rerun cgo.
* expvar: default publishings for cmdline, memstats
* flag: add user-defined flag types.
* gc: usual bug fixes
* go/ast: generalized ast filtering.
* go/printer: avoid reflect in print.
* godefs: fix handling of negative constants.
* godoc: export pprof debug information, exported variables,
support for filtering of command-line output in -src mode,
use http GET for remote search instead of rpc.
* gofmt: don't convert multi-line functions into one-liners,
preserve newlines in multiline selector expressions (thanks Risto Jaakko Saarelma).
* goinstall: include command name in error reporting (thanks Andrey Mirtchovski)
* http: add HandleFunc as shortcut to Handle(path, HandlerFunc(func))
* make: use actual dependency for install
* math: add J1, Y1, Jn, Yn, J0, Y0 (Bessel functions) (thanks Charles L. Dorian)
* prof: add pprof from google-perftools
* regexp: don't return non-nil *Regexp if there is an error.
* runtime: add Callers,
add malloc sampling, pprof interface,
add memory profiling, more statistics to runtime.MemStats,
implement missing destroylock() (thanks Alex Brainman),
more malloc statistics,
run all finalizers in a single goroutine,
Goexit runs deferred calls.
* strconv: add Atob and Btoa,
Unquote could wrongly return a nil error on error (thanks Roger Peppe).
* syscall: add IPV6 constants,
add syscall_bsd.go for Darwin and other *BSDs (thanks Giles Lean),
implement SetsockoptString (thanks Christopher Wedgwood).
* websocket: implement new protocol (thanks Fumitoshi Ukai).
* xgb: fix request length and request size (thanks Firmansyah Adiputra).
* xml: add CopyToken (thanks Kyle Consalus),
add line numbers to syntax errors (thanks Kyle Consalus),
use io.ReadByter in place of local readByter (thanks Raif S. Naffah).
<h3 id="2010-03-22">2010-03-22</h3>
With this release we announce the launch of the Go Blog:
The first post is a brief update covering what has happened since the launch.
This release contains some new packages and functionality, and many fixes:
* 6g/8g: fix issues with complex data types, other bug fixes.
* Makefiles: refactored to make writing external Makefiles easier.
* crypto/rand: new package.
* godoc: implemented command-line search via RPC,
improved comment formatting: recognize URLs.
* gofmt: more consistent formatting of const/var decls.
* http: add Error helper function,
add ParseQuery (thanks Petar Maymounkov),
change RawPath to mean raw path, not raw everything-after-scheme.
* image/jpeg: fix typos.
* json: add MarshalIndent (accepts user-specified indent string).
* math: add Gamma function (thanks Charles L. Dorian).
* misc/bbedit: support for cmplx, real, imag (thanks Anthony Starks).
* misc/vim: add new complex types, functions and literals.
* net: fix IPMask.String not to crash on all-0xff mask.
* os: drop File finalizer after normal Close.
* runtime: add GOROOT and Version,
lock finalizer table accesses.
* sha512: add sha384 (truncated version) (thanks Conrad Meyer).
* syscall: add const ARCH, analogous to OS.
* syscall: further additions to mingw port (thanks Alex Brainman).
* template: fixed html formatter []byte input bug.
* utf16: new package.
* version.bash: cope with ancient Mercurial.
* websocket: use URL.RawPath to construct WebSocket-Location: header.
<h3 id="2010-03-15">2010-03-15</h3>
This release includes a language change: support for complex numbers.
There is no library support as yet.
This release also includes the goinstall command-line tool.
* 5g/6g/8g: fix double function call in slice.
* arm: cleanup build warnings. (thanks Dean Prichard)
* big: fix mistakes with probablyPrime.
* bufio: add WriteRune.
* bytes: add ReadRune and WriteRune to bytes.Buffer.
* cc: stack split bug fix.
* crypto: add SHA-224 to sha256, add sha512 package. (thanks Conrad Meyer)
* crypto/ripemd160: new package. (thanks Raif S. Naffah)
* crypto/rsa: don't use safe primes.
* gc: avoid fixed length buffer cleanbuf. (thanks Dean Prichard)
better compilation of floating point +=
fix crash on complicated arg to make slice.
remove duplicate errors, give better error for I.(T)
* godoc: support for multiple packages in a directory, other fixes.
* gofmt: bug fixes.
* hash: add Sum64 interface.
* hash/crc32: add Update function.
* hash/crc64: new package implementing 64-bit CRC.
* math: add ilogb, logb, remainder. (thanks Charles L. Dorian)
* regexp: add ReplaceAllFunc, ReplaceAllStringFunc.
* runtime: clock garbage collection on bytes allocated, not pages in use.
* strings: make Split(s, "", n) faster. (thanks Spring Mc)
* syscall: minimal mingw version of syscall. (thanks Alex Brainman)
* template: add ParseFile, MustParseFile.
<h3 id="2010-03-04">2010-03-04</h3>
There is one language change: the ability to convert a string to []byte or
[]int. This deprecates the strings.Bytes and strings.Runes functions.
You can convert your existing sources using these gofmt commands:
gofmt -r 'strings.Bytes(x) -> []byte(x)' -w file-or-directory-list
gofmt -r 'strings.Runes(x) -> []int(x)' -w file-or-directory-list
After running these you might need to delete unused imports of the "strings"
Other changes and fixes:
* 6l/8l/5l: add -r option
* 8g: make a[byte(x)] truncate x
* fix for compatibility with hg >=1.4.3
* crypto/blowfish: new package (thanks Raif S. Naffah)
* dashboard: more performance tuning
* fmt: use String method in %q to get the value to quote.
* gofmt: several cosmetic changes
* http: fix handling of Connection: close, bug in http.Post
* net: correct DNS configuration,
fix network timeout boundary condition,
put [ ] around IPv6 addresses for Dial.
* path: add Match,
fix bug in Match with non-greedy stars (thanks Kevin Ballard)
* strings: delete Bytes, Runes (see above)
* tests: an Eratosthenesque concurrent prime sieve (thanks Anh Hai Trinh)
<h3 id="2010-02-23">2010-02-23</h3>
This release is mainly bug fixes and a little new code.
There are no language changes.
6g/5g/8g: bug fixes
8a/8l: Added FCMOVcc instructions (thanks Evan Shaw and Charles Dorian)
crypto/x509: support certificate creation
dashboard: caching to avoid datastore queries
exec: add dir argument to Run
godoc: bug fixes and code cleanups
http: continued implementation and bug fixes (thanks Petar Maymounkov)
json: fix quoted strings in Marshal (thanks Sergei Skorobogatov)
math: more functions, test cases, and benchmarks (thanks Charles L. Dorian)
misc/bbedit: treat predeclared identifiers as "keywords" (thanks Anthony Starks)
net: disable UDP server test (flaky on various architectures)
runtime: work around Linux kernel bug in futex,
pchw is now tiny
sync: fix to work on armv5 (thanks Dean Prichard)
websocket: fix binary frame size decoding (thanks Timo Savola)
xml: allow unquoted attribute values in non-Strict mode (thanks Amrut Joshi)
treat bool as value in Unmarshal (thanks Michael Hoisie)
<h3 id="2010-02-17">2010-02-17</h3>
There are two small language changes:
* NUL bytes may be rejected in souce files, and the tools do reject them.
* Conversions from string to []int and []byte are defined but not yet implemented.
Other changes and fixes:
* 5a/6a/8a/5c/6c/8c: remove fixed-size arrays for -I and -D options (thanks Dean Prichard)
* 5c/6c/8c/5l/6l/8l: add -V flag to display version number
* 5c/6c/8c: use "cpp" not "/bin/cpp" for external preprocessor (thanks Giles Lean)
* 8a/8l: Added CMOVcc instructions (thanks Evan Shaw)
* 8l: pe executable building code changed to include import table for kernel32.dll functions (thanks Alex Brainman)
* 5g/6g/8g: bug fixes
* asn1: bug fixes and additions (incl marshalling)
* build: fix build for Native Client, Linux/ARM
* dashboard: show benchmarks, add garbage collector benchmarks
* encoding/pem: add marshalling support
* exp/draw: fast paths for a nil mask
* godoc: support for directories outside $GOROOT
* http: sort header keys when writing Response or Request to wire (thanks Petar Maymounkov)
* math: special cases and new functions (thanks Charles Dorian)
* mime: new package, used in http (thanks Michael Hoisie)
* net: dns bug fix - use random request id
* os: finalize File, to close fd.
* path: make Join variadic (thanks Stephen Weinberg)
* regexp: optimization bug fix
* runtime: misc fixes and optimizations
* syscall: make signature of Umask on OS X, FreeBSD match Linux. (thanks Giles Lean)
<h3 id="2010-02-04">2010-02-04</h3>
There is one language change: support for ...T parameters:
You can now check build status on various platforms at the Go Dashboard:
* 5l/6l/8l: several minor fixes
* 5a/6a/8a/5l/6l/8l: avoid overflow of symb buffer (thanks Dean Prichard)
* compress/gzip: gzip deflater (i.e., writer)
* debug/proc: add mingw specific build stubs (thanks Joe Poirier)
* exp/draw: separate the source-point and mask-point in Draw
* fmt: handle nils safely in Printf
* gccgo: error messages now match those of gc
* godoc: several fixes
* http: bug fixes, revision of Request/Response (thanks Petar Maymounkov)
* image: new image.A type to represent anti-aliased font glyphs
add named colors (e.g. image.Blue), suitable for exp/draw
* io: fixed bugs in Pipe
* malloc: merge into package runtime
* math: fix tests on FreeBSD (thanks Devon H. O'Dell)
add functions; update tests and special cases (thanks Charles L. Dorian)
* os/signal: send SIGCHLDs to Incoming (thanks Chris Wedgwood)
* reflect: add StringHeader to reflect
* runtime: add SetFinalizer
* time: Sleep through interruptions (thanks Chris Wedgwood)
add RFC822 formats
experimental implemenation of Ticker using two goroutines for all tickers
* xml: allow underscores in XML element names (thanks Michael Hoisie)
allow any scalar type in xml.Unmarshal
<h3 id="2010-01-27">2010-01-27</h3>
There are two small language changes: the meaning of chan <- chan int
is now defined, and functions returning functions do not need to
parenthesize the result type.
There is one significant implementation change: the compilers can
handle multiple packages using the same name in a single binary.
In the gc compilers, this comes at the cost of ensuring that you
always import a particular package using a consistent import path.
In the gccgo compiler, the cost is that you must use the -fgo-prefix
flag to pass a unique prefix (like the eventual import path).
5a/6a/8a: avoid use of fixed-size buffers (thanks Dean Prichard)
5g, 6g, 8g: many minor bug fixes
bufio: give Writer.WriteString same signature as bytes.Buffer.WriteString.
container/list: PushFrontList, PushBackList (thanks Jan Hosang)
godoc: trim spaces from search query (thanks Christopher Wedgwood)
hash: document that Sum does not change state, fix crypto hashes
http: bug fixes, revision of Request/Response (thanks Petar Maymounkov)
math: more handling of IEEE 754 special cases (thanks Charles Dorian)
misc/dashboard: new build dashboard
net: allow UDP broadcast,
use /etc/hosts to resolve names (thanks Yves Junqueira, Michael Hoisie)
netchan: beginnings of new package for connecting channels across a network
os: allow FQDN in Hostname test (thanks Icarus Sparry)
reflect: garbage collection bug in Call
runtime: demo of Go on raw (emulated) hw in runtime/pchw,
performance fix on OS X
spec: clarify meaning of chan <- chan int,
func() func() int is allowed now,
define ... T (not yet implemented)
template: can use interface values
time: fix for +0000 time zone,
more robust tick.Stop.
xgb: support for authenticated connections (thanks Firmansyah Adiputra)
xml: add Escape (thanks Stephen Weinberg)
<h3 id="2010-01-13">2010-01-13</h3>
This release is mainly bug fixes with a little new code.
There are no language changes.
build: $GOBIN should no longer be required in $PATH (thanks Devon H. O'Dell),
new package target "make bench" to run benchmarks
8g: faster float -> uint64 conversion (thanks Evan Shaw)
5g, 6g, 8g:
clean opnames.h to avoid stale errors (thanks Yongjian Xu),
a handful of small compiler fixes
5g, 6g, 8g, 5l, 6l, 8l: ignore $GOARCH, which is implied by name of tool
6prof: support for writing input files for google-perftools's pprof
asn1: fix a few structure-handling bugs
cgo: many bug fixes (thanks Devon H. O'Dell)
codereview: repeated "hg mail" sends "please take another look"
gob: reserve ids for future expansion
godoc: distinguish HTML generation from plain text HTML escaping (thanks Roger Peppe)
gofmt: minor bug fixes, removed -oldprinter flag
http: add CanonicalPath (thanks Ivan Krasin),
avoid header duplication in Response.Write,
correctly escape/unescape URL sections
io: new interface ReadByter
json: better error, pointer handling in Marshal (thanks Ivan Krasin)
libmach: disassembly of FUCOMI, etc (thanks Evan Shaw)
math: special cases for most functions and 386 hardware Sqrt (thanks Charles Dorian)
misc/dashboard: beginning of a build dashboard at
misc/emacs: handling of new semicolon rules (thanks Austin Clements),
empty buffer bug fix (thanks Kevin Ballard)
misc/kate: highlighting improvements (tahnks Evan Shaw)
os/signal: add signal names: signal.SIGHUP, etc (thanks David Symonds)
runtime: preliminary Windows support (thanks Hector Chu),
preemption polling to reduce garbage collector pauses
scanner: new lightweight scanner package
template: bug fix involving spaces before a delimited block
test/bench: updated timings
time: new Format, Parse functions
<h3 id="2010-01-05">2010-01-05</h3>
This release is mainly bug fixes. There are no language changes.
6prof: now works on 386
8a, 8l: add FCOMI, FCOMIP, FUCOMI, and FUCOMIP (thanks Evan Shaw)
big: fix ProbablyPrime on small numbers
container/vector: faster []-based implementation (thanks Jan Mercl)
crypto/tls: extensions and Next Protocol Negotiation
gob: one encoding bug fix, one decoding bug fix
image/jpeg: support for RST markers
image/png: support for transparent paletted images
misc/xcode: improved support (thanks Ken Friedenbach)
net: return nil Conn on error from Dial (thanks Roger Peppe)
regexp: add Regexp.NumSubexp (thanks Peter Froehlich)
syscall: add Nanosleep on FreeBSD (thanks Devon H. O'Dell)
template: can use map in .repeated section
There is now a public road map, in the repository and online
at <a href=""></a>.
<h3 id="2009-12-22">2009-12-22</h3>
Since the last release there has been one large syntactic change to
the language, already discussed extensively on this list: semicolons
are now implied between statement-ending tokens and newline characters.
See for
By default, gofmt now parses and prints the new lighter weight syntax.
To convert programs written in the old syntax, you can use:
gofmt -oldparser -w *.go
Since everything was being reformatted anyway, we took the opportunity to
change the way gofmt does alignment. Now gofmt uses tabs at the start
of a line for basic code alignment, but it uses spaces for alignment of
interior columns. Thus, in an editor with a fixed-width font, you can
choose your own tab size to change the indentation, and no matter what
tab size you choose, columns will be aligned properly.
In addition to the syntax and formatting changes, there have been many
smaller fixes and updates:
6g,8g,5g: many bug fixes, better registerization,
build process fix involving mkbuiltin (thanks Yongjian Xu),
method expressions for concrete types
8l: support for Windows PE files (thanks Hector Chu)
bytes: more efficient Buffer handling
bytes, strings: new function Fields (thanks Andrey Mirtchovski)
cgo: handling of enums (thanks Moriyoshi Koizumi),
handling of structs with bit fields, multiple files (thanks Devon H. O'Dell),
installation of .so to non-standard locations
crypto/sha256: new package for SHA 256 (thanks Andy Davis)
encoding/binary: support for slices of fixed-size values (thanks Maxim Ushakov)
exp/vector: experimental alternate vector representation (thanks Jan Mercl)
fmt: %p for chan, map, slice types
gob: a couple more bug fixes
http: support for basic authentication (thanks Ivan Krasin)
image/jpeg: basic JPEG decoder
math: correct handling of Inf and NaN in Pow (thanks Charles Dorian)
misc/bash: completion file for bash (thanks Alex Ray)
os/signal: support for handling Unix signals (thanks David Symonds)
rand: Zipf-distributed random values (thanks William Josephson)
syscall: correct error return bug on 32-bit machines (thanks Christopher Wedgwood)
syslog: new package for writing to Unix syslog daemon (thanks Yves Junqueira)
template: will automatically invoke niladic methods
time: new ISO8601 format generator (thanks Ben Olive)
xgb: converted generator to new syntax (thanks Tor Andersson)
xml: better mapping of tag names to Go identifiers (thanks Kei Son),
better handling of unexpected EOF (thanks Arvindh Rajesh Tamilmani)
<h3 id="2009-12-09">2009-12-09</h3>
Since the last release there are two changes to the language:
* new builtin copy(dst, src) copies n = min(len(dst), len(src))
elements to dst from src and returns n. It works correctly
even if dst and src overlap. bytes.Copy is gone.
Convert your programs using:
gofmt -w -r 'bytes.Copy(d, s) -&gt; copy(d, s)' *.go
* new syntax x[lo:] is shorthand for x[lo:len(x)].
Convert your programs using:
gofmt -w -r 'a[b:len(a)] -&gt; a[b:]' *.go
In addition, there have been many smaller fixes and updates:
* 6g/8g/5g: many bug fixes
* 8g: fix 386 floating point stack bug (thanks Charles Dorian)
* all.bash: now works even when $GOROOT has spaces (thanks Sergio Luis O. B. Correia),
starting to make build work with mingw (thanks Hector Chu),
FreeBSD support (thanks Devon O'Dell)
* big: much faster on 386.
* bytes: new function IndexByte, implemented in assembly
new function Runes (thanks Peter Froehlich),
performance tuning in bytes.Buffer.
* codereview: various bugs fixed
* container/vector: New is gone; just declare a Vector instead.
call Resize to set len and cap.
* cgo: many bug fixes (thanks Eden Li)
* crypto: added MD4 (thanks Chris Lennert),
added XTEA (thanks Adrian O'Grady).
* crypto/tls: basic client
* exp/iterable: new functions (thanks Michael Elkins)
* exp/nacl: native client tree builds again
* fmt: preliminary performance tuning
* go/ast: more powerful Visitor (thanks Roger Peppe)
* gob: a few bug fixes
* gofmt: better handling of standard input, error reporting (thanks Fazlul Shahriar)
new -r flag for rewriting programs
* gotest: support for Benchmark functions (thanks Trevor Strohman)
* io: ReadFile, WriteFile, ReadDir now in separate package io/ioutil.
* json: new Marshal function (thanks Michael Hoisie),
better white space handling (thanks Andrew Skiba),
decoding into native data structures (thanks Sergey Gromov),
handling of nil interface values (thanks Ross Light).
* math: correct handling of sin/cos of large angles
* net: better handling of Close (thanks Devon O'Dell and Christopher Wedgwood)
support for UDP broadcast (thanks Jonathan Wills),
support for empty packets
* rand: top-level functions now safe to call from multiple goroutines
(thanks Roger Peppe).
* regexp: a few easy optimizations
* rpc: better error handling, a few bug fixes
* runtime: better signal handling on OS X, malloc fixes,
global channel lock is gone.
* sync: RWMutex now allows concurrent readers (thanks Péter Szabó)
* template: can use maps as data (thanks James Meneghello)
* unicode: updated to Unicode 5.2.
* websocket: new package (thanks Fumitoshi Ukai)
* xgb: preliminary X Go Bindings (thanks Tor Andersson)
* xml: fixed crash (thanks Vish Subramanian)
* misc: bbedit config (thanks Anthony Starks),
kate config (thanks Evan Shaw)