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// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
#include "runtime.h"
#include "arch_GOARCH.h"
#include "stack.h"
#include "cgocall.h"
#include "race.h"
#include "../../cmd/ld/textflag.h"
// Cgo call and callback support.
// To call into the C function f from Go, the cgo-generated code calls
// runtime.cgocall(_cgo_Cfunc_f, frame), where _cgo_Cfunc_f is a
// gcc-compiled function written by cgo.
// runtime.cgocall (below) locks g to m, calls entersyscall
// so as not to block other goroutines or the garbage collector,
// and then calls runtime.asmcgocall(_cgo_Cfunc_f, frame).
// runtime.asmcgocall (in asm_$GOARCH.s) switches to the m->g0 stack
// (assumed to be an operating system-allocated stack, so safe to run
// gcc-compiled code on) and calls _cgo_Cfunc_f(frame).
// _cgo_Cfunc_f invokes the actual C function f with arguments
// taken from the frame structure, records the results in the frame,
// and returns to runtime.asmcgocall.
// After it regains control, runtime.asmcgocall switches back to the
// original g (m->curg)'s stack and returns to runtime.cgocall.
// After it regains control, runtime.cgocall calls exitsyscall, which blocks
// until this m can run Go code without violating the $GOMAXPROCS limit,
// and then unlocks g from m.
// The above description skipped over the possibility of the gcc-compiled
// function f calling back into Go. If that happens, we continue down
// the rabbit hole during the execution of f.
// To make it possible for gcc-compiled C code to call a Go function p.GoF,
// cgo writes a gcc-compiled function named GoF (not p.GoF, since gcc doesn't
// know about packages). The gcc-compiled C function f calls GoF.
// GoF calls crosscall2(_cgoexp_GoF, frame, framesize). Crosscall2
// (in cgo/gcc_$GOARCH.S, a gcc-compiled assembly file) is a two-argument
// adapter from the gcc function call ABI to the 6c function call ABI.
// It is called from gcc to call 6c functions. In this case it calls
// _cgoexp_GoF(frame, framesize), still running on m->g0's stack
// and outside the $GOMAXPROCS limit. Thus, this code cannot yet
// call arbitrary Go code directly and must be careful not to allocate
// memory or use up m->g0's stack.
// _cgoexp_GoF calls runtime.cgocallback(p.GoF, frame, framesize).
// (The reason for having _cgoexp_GoF instead of writing a crosscall3
// to make this call directly is that _cgoexp_GoF, because it is compiled
// with 6c instead of gcc, can refer to dotted names like
// runtime.cgocallback and p.GoF.)
// runtime.cgocallback (in asm_$GOARCH.s) switches from m->g0's
// stack to the original g (m->curg)'s stack, on which it calls
// runtime.cgocallbackg(p.GoF, frame, framesize).
// As part of the stack switch, runtime.cgocallback saves the current
// SP as m->g0->sched.sp, so that any use of m->g0's stack during the
// execution of the callback will be done below the existing stack frames.
// Before overwriting m->g0->sched.sp, it pushes the old value on the
// m->g0 stack, so that it can be restored later.
// runtime.cgocallbackg (below) is now running on a real goroutine
// stack (not an m->g0 stack). First it calls runtime.exitsyscall, which will
// block until the $GOMAXPROCS limit allows running this goroutine.
// Once exitsyscall has returned, it is safe to do things like call the memory
// allocator or invoke the Go callback function p.GoF. runtime.cgocallbackg
// first defers a function to unwind m->g0.sched.sp, so that if p.GoF
// panics, m->g0.sched.sp will be restored to its old value: the m->g0 stack
// and the m->curg stack will be unwound in lock step.
// Then it calls p.GoF. Finally it pops but does not execute the deferred
// function, calls runtime.entersyscall, and returns to runtime.cgocallback.
// After it regains control, runtime.cgocallback switches back to
// m->g0's stack (the pointer is still in m->g0.sched.sp), restores the old
// m->g0.sched.sp value from the stack, and returns to _cgoexp_GoF.
// _cgoexp_GoF immediately returns to crosscall2, which restores the
// callee-save registers for gcc and returns to GoF, which returns to f.
void *_cgo_init; /* filled in by dynamic linker when Cgo is available */
static int64 cgosync; /* represents possible synchronization in C code */
static void unwindm(void);
// Call from Go to C.
static void endcgo(void);
static FuncVal endcgoV = { endcgo };
runtime·cgocall(void (*fn)(void*), void *arg)
Defer d;
if(!runtime·iscgo && !Solaris && !Windows)
runtime·throw("cgocall unavailable");
if(fn == 0)
runtime·throw("cgocall nil");
// Create an extra M for callbacks on threads not created by Go on first cgo call.
if(runtime·needextram && runtime·cas(&runtime·needextram, 1, 0))
* Lock g to m to ensure we stay on the same stack if we do a
* cgo callback. Add entry to defer stack in case of panic.
d.fn = &endcgoV;
d.siz = 0; = g->defer;
d.argp = (void*)-1; // unused because unlockm never recovers
d.special = true;
g->defer = &d;
* Announce we are entering a system call
* so that the scheduler knows to create another
* M to run goroutines while we are in the
* foreign code.
* The call to asmcgocall is guaranteed not to
* split the stack and does not allocate memory,
* so it is safe to call while "in a system call", outside
* the $GOMAXPROCS accounting.
runtime·asmcgocall(fn, arg);
if(g->defer != &d || d.fn != &endcgoV)
runtime·throw("runtime: bad defer entry in cgocallback");
g->defer =;
static void
if(m->ncgo == 0) {
// We are going back to Go and are not in a recursive
// call. Let the GC collect any memory allocated via
// _cgo_allocate that is no longer referenced.
m->cgomal = nil;
// Helper functions for cgo code.
void (*_cgo_malloc)(void*);
void (*_cgo_free)(void*);
runtime·cmalloc(uintptr n)
struct {
uint64 n;
void *ret;
} a;
a.n = n;
a.ret = nil;
runtime·cgocall(_cgo_malloc, &a);
if(a.ret == nil)
runtime·throw("runtime: C malloc failed");
return a.ret;
runtime·cfree(void *p)
runtime·cgocall(_cgo_free, p);
// Call from C back to Go.
static FuncVal unwindmf = {unwindm};
typedef struct CallbackArgs CallbackArgs;
struct CallbackArgs
FuncVal *fn;
void *arg;
uintptr argsize;
// Location of callback arguments depends on stack frame layout
// and size of stack frame of cgocallback_gofunc.
// On arm, stack frame is two words and there's a saved LR between
// SP and the stack frame and between the stack frame and the arguments.
#ifdef GOARCH_arm
#define CBARGS (CallbackArgs*)((byte*)m->g0->sched.sp+4*sizeof(void*))
// On amd64, stack frame is one word, plus caller PC.
#ifdef GOARCH_amd64
#define CBARGS (CallbackArgs*)((byte*)m->g0->sched.sp+2*sizeof(void*))
// Unimplemented on amd64p32
#ifdef GOARCH_amd64p32
#define CBARGS (CallbackArgs*)(nil)
// On 386, stack frame is three words, plus caller PC.
#ifdef GOARCH_386
#define CBARGS (CallbackArgs*)((byte*)m->g0->sched.sp+4*sizeof(void*))
void runtime·cgocallbackg1(void);
#pragma textflag NOSPLIT
if(g != m->curg) {
runtime·prints("runtime: bad g in cgocallback");
runtime·exitsyscall(); // coming out of cgo call
runtime·entersyscall(); // going back to cgo call
CallbackArgs *cb;
Defer d;
if(m->needextram) {
m->needextram = 0;
// Add entry to defer stack in case of panic.
d.fn = &unwindmf;
d.siz = 0; = g->defer;
d.argp = (void*)-1; // unused because unwindm never recovers
d.special = true;
g->defer = &d;
// Invoke callback.
cb = CBARGS;
runtime·newstackcall(cb->fn, cb->arg, cb->argsize);
// Pop defer.
// Do not unwind m->g0->sched.sp.
// Our caller, cgocallback, will do that.
if(g->defer != &d || d.fn != &unwindmf)
runtime·throw("runtime: bad defer entry in cgocallback");
g->defer =;
static void
// Restore sp saved by cgocallback during
// unwind of g's stack (see comment at top of file).
runtime·throw("runtime: unwindm not implemented");
case '8':
case '6':
m->g0->sched.sp = *(uintptr*)m->g0->sched.sp;
case '5':
m->g0->sched.sp = *(uintptr*)((byte*)m->g0->sched.sp + 4);
runtime·badcgocallback(void) // called from assembly
runtime·throw("runtime: misaligned stack in cgocallback");
runtime·cgounimpl(void) // called from (incomplete) assembly
runtime·throw("runtime: cgo not implemented");
// For cgo-using programs with external linking,
// export "main" (defined in assembly) so that libc can handle basic
// C runtime startup and call the Go program as if it were
// the C main function.
#pragma cgo_export_static main