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// Copyright 2009 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package runtime
import (
// defined constants
const (
// G status
// Beyond indicating the general state of a G, the G status
// acts like a lock on the goroutine's stack (and hence its
// ability to execute user code).
// If you add to this list, add to the list
// of "okay during garbage collection" status
// in mgcmark.go too.
// TODO(austin): The _Gscan bit could be much lighter-weight.
// For example, we could choose not to run _Gscanrunnable
// goroutines found in the run queue, rather than CAS-looping
// until they become _Grunnable. And transitions like
// _Gscanwaiting -> _Gscanrunnable are actually okay because
// they don't affect stack ownership.
// _Gidle means this goroutine was just allocated and has not
// yet been initialized.
_Gidle = iota // 0
// _Grunnable means this goroutine is on a run queue. It is
// not currently executing user code. The stack is not owned.
_Grunnable // 1
// _Grunning means this goroutine may execute user code. The
// stack is owned by this goroutine. It is not on a run queue.
// It is assigned an M and a P (g.m and g.m.p are valid).
_Grunning // 2
// _Gsyscall means this goroutine is executing a system call.
// It is not executing user code. The stack is owned by this
// goroutine. It is not on a run queue. It is assigned an M.
_Gsyscall // 3
// _Gwaiting means this goroutine is blocked in the runtime.
// It is not executing user code. It is not on a run queue,
// but should be recorded somewhere (e.g., a channel wait
// queue) so it can be ready()d when necessary. The stack is
// not owned *except* that a channel operation may read or
// write parts of the stack under the appropriate channel
// lock. Otherwise, it is not safe to access the stack after a
// goroutine enters _Gwaiting (e.g., it may get moved).
_Gwaiting // 4
// _Gmoribund_unused is currently unused, but hardcoded in gdb
// scripts.
_Gmoribund_unused // 5
// _Gdead means this goroutine is currently unused. It may be
// just exited, on a free list, or just being initialized. It
// is not executing user code. It may or may not have a stack
// allocated. The G and its stack (if any) are owned by the M
// that is exiting the G or that obtained the G from the free
// list.
_Gdead // 6
// _Genqueue_unused is currently unused.
_Genqueue_unused // 7
// _Gcopystack means this goroutine's stack is being moved. It
// is not executing user code and is not on a run queue. The
// stack is owned by the goroutine that put it in _Gcopystack.
_Gcopystack // 8
// _Gpreempted means this goroutine stopped itself for a
// suspendG preemption. It is like _Gwaiting, but nothing is
// yet responsible for ready()ing it. Some suspendG must CAS
// the status to _Gwaiting to take responsibility for
// ready()ing this G.
_Gpreempted // 9
// _Gscan combined with one of the above states other than
// _Grunning indicates that GC is scanning the stack. The
// goroutine is not executing user code and the stack is owned
// by the goroutine that set the _Gscan bit.
// _Gscanrunning is different: it is used to briefly block
// state transitions while GC signals the G to scan its own
// stack. This is otherwise like _Grunning.
// atomicstatus&~Gscan gives the state the goroutine will
// return to when the scan completes.
_Gscan = 0x1000
_Gscanrunnable = _Gscan + _Grunnable // 0x1001
_Gscanrunning = _Gscan + _Grunning // 0x1002
_Gscansyscall = _Gscan + _Gsyscall // 0x1003
_Gscanwaiting = _Gscan + _Gwaiting // 0x1004
_Gscanpreempted = _Gscan + _Gpreempted // 0x1009
const (
// P status
// _Pidle means a P is not being used to run user code or the
// scheduler. Typically, it's on the idle P list and available
// to the scheduler, but it may just be transitioning between
// other states.
// The P is owned by the idle list or by whatever is
// transitioning its state. Its run queue is empty.
_Pidle = iota
// _Prunning means a P is owned by an M and is being used to
// run user code or the scheduler. Only the M that owns this P
// is allowed to change the P's status from _Prunning. The M
// may transition the P to _Pidle (if it has no more work to
// do), _Psyscall (when entering a syscall), or _Pgcstop (to
// halt for the GC). The M may also hand ownership of the P
// off directly to another M (e.g., to schedule a locked G).
// _Psyscall means a P is not running user code. It has
// affinity to an M in a syscall but is not owned by it and
// may be stolen by another M. This is similar to _Pidle but
// uses lightweight transitions and maintains M affinity.
// Leaving _Psyscall must be done with a CAS, either to steal
// or retake the P. Note that there's an ABA hazard: even if
// an M successfully CASes its original P back to _Prunning
// after a syscall, it must understand the P may have been
// used by another M in the interim.
// _Pgcstop means a P is halted for STW and owned by the M
// that stopped the world. The M that stopped the world
// continues to use its P, even in _Pgcstop. Transitioning
// from _Prunning to _Pgcstop causes an M to release its P and
// park.
// The P retains its run queue and startTheWorld will restart
// the scheduler on Ps with non-empty run queues.
// _Pdead means a P is no longer used (GOMAXPROCS shrank). We
// reuse Ps if GOMAXPROCS increases. A dead P is mostly
// stripped of its resources, though a few things remain
// (e.g., trace buffers).
// Mutual exclusion locks. In the uncontended case,
// as fast as spin locks (just a few user-level instructions),
// but on the contention path they sleep in the kernel.
// A zeroed Mutex is unlocked (no need to initialize each lock).
// Initialization is helpful for static lock ranking, but not required.
type mutex struct {
// Empty struct if lock ranking is disabled, otherwise includes the lock rank
// Futex-based impl treats it as uint32 key,
// while sema-based impl as M* waitm.
// Used to be a union, but unions break precise GC.
key uintptr
// sleep and wakeup on one-time events.
// before any calls to notesleep or notewakeup,
// must call noteclear to initialize the Note.
// then, exactly one thread can call notesleep
// and exactly one thread can call notewakeup (once).
// once notewakeup has been called, the notesleep
// will return. future notesleep will return immediately.
// subsequent noteclear must be called only after
// previous notesleep has returned, e.g. it's disallowed
// to call noteclear straight after notewakeup.
// notetsleep is like notesleep but wakes up after
// a given number of nanoseconds even if the event
// has not yet happened. if a goroutine uses notetsleep to
// wake up early, it must wait to call noteclear until it
// can be sure that no other goroutine is calling
// notewakeup.
// notesleep/notetsleep are generally called on g0,
// notetsleepg is similar to notetsleep but is called on user g.
type note struct {
// Futex-based impl treats it as uint32 key,
// while sema-based impl as M* waitm.
// Used to be a union, but unions break precise GC.
key uintptr
type funcval struct {
fn uintptr
// variable-size, fn-specific data here
type iface struct {
tab *itab
data unsafe.Pointer
type eface struct {
_type *_type
data unsafe.Pointer
func efaceOf(ep *any) *eface {
return (*eface)(unsafe.Pointer(ep))
// The guintptr, muintptr, and puintptr are all used to bypass write barriers.
// It is particularly important to avoid write barriers when the current P has
// been released, because the GC thinks the world is stopped, and an
// unexpected write barrier would not be synchronized with the GC,
// which can lead to a half-executed write barrier that has marked the object
// but not queued it. If the GC skips the object and completes before the
// queuing can occur, it will incorrectly free the object.
// We tried using special assignment functions invoked only when not
// holding a running P, but then some updates to a particular memory
// word went through write barriers and some did not. This breaks the
// write barrier shadow checking mode, and it is also scary: better to have
// a word that is completely ignored by the GC than to have one for which
// only a few updates are ignored.
// Gs and Ps are always reachable via true pointers in the
// allgs and allp lists or (during allocation before they reach those lists)
// from stack variables.
// Ms are always reachable via true pointers either from allm or
// freem. Unlike Gs and Ps we do free Ms, so it's important that
// nothing ever hold an muintptr across a safe point.
// A guintptr holds a goroutine pointer, but typed as a uintptr
// to bypass write barriers. It is used in the Gobuf goroutine state
// and in scheduling lists that are manipulated without a P.
// The Gobuf.g goroutine pointer is almost always updated by assembly code.
// In one of the few places it is updated by Go code - func save - it must be
// treated as a uintptr to avoid a write barrier being emitted at a bad time.
// Instead of figuring out how to emit the write barriers missing in the
// assembly manipulation, we change the type of the field to uintptr,
// so that it does not require write barriers at all.
// Goroutine structs are published in the allg list and never freed.
// That will keep the goroutine structs from being collected.
// There is never a time that Gobuf.g's contain the only references
// to a goroutine: the publishing of the goroutine in allg comes first.
// Goroutine pointers are also kept in non-GC-visible places like TLS,
// so I can't see them ever moving. If we did want to start moving data
// in the GC, we'd need to allocate the goroutine structs from an
// alternate arena. Using guintptr doesn't make that problem any worse.
// Note that pollDesc.rg, pollDesc.wg also store g in uintptr form,
// so they would need to be updated too if g's start moving.
type guintptr uintptr
func (gp guintptr) ptr() *g { return (*g)(unsafe.Pointer(gp)) }
func (gp *guintptr) set(g *g) { *gp = guintptr(unsafe.Pointer(g)) }
func (gp *guintptr) cas(old, new guintptr) bool {
return atomic.Casuintptr((*uintptr)(unsafe.Pointer(gp)), uintptr(old), uintptr(new))
// setGNoWB performs *gp = new without a write barrier.
// For times when it's impractical to use a guintptr.
func setGNoWB(gp **g, new *g) {
type puintptr uintptr
func (pp puintptr) ptr() *p { return (*p)(unsafe.Pointer(pp)) }
func (pp *puintptr) set(p *p) { *pp = puintptr(unsafe.Pointer(p)) }
// muintptr is a *m that is not tracked by the garbage collector.
// Because we do free Ms, there are some additional constrains on
// muintptrs:
// 1. Never hold an muintptr locally across a safe point.
// 2. Any muintptr in the heap must be owned by the M itself so it can
// ensure it is not in use when the last true *m is released.
type muintptr uintptr
func (mp muintptr) ptr() *m { return (*m)(unsafe.Pointer(mp)) }
func (mp *muintptr) set(m *m) { *mp = muintptr(unsafe.Pointer(m)) }
// setMNoWB performs *mp = new without a write barrier.
// For times when it's impractical to use an muintptr.
func setMNoWB(mp **m, new *m) {
type gobuf struct {
// The offsets of sp, pc, and g are known to (hard-coded in) libmach.
// ctxt is unusual with respect to GC: it may be a
// heap-allocated funcval, so GC needs to track it, but it
// needs to be set and cleared from assembly, where it's
// difficult to have write barriers. However, ctxt is really a
// saved, live register, and we only ever exchange it between
// the real register and the gobuf. Hence, we treat it as a
// root during stack scanning, which means assembly that saves
// and restores it doesn't need write barriers. It's still
// typed as a pointer so that any other writes from Go get
// write barriers.
sp uintptr
pc uintptr
g guintptr
ctxt unsafe.Pointer
ret uintptr
lr uintptr
bp uintptr // for framepointer-enabled architectures
// sudog represents a g in a wait list, such as for sending/receiving
// on a channel.
// sudog is necessary because the g ↔ synchronization object relation
// is many-to-many. A g can be on many wait lists, so there may be
// many sudogs for one g; and many gs may be waiting on the same
// synchronization object, so there may be many sudogs for one object.
// sudogs are allocated from a special pool. Use acquireSudog and
// releaseSudog to allocate and free them.
type sudog struct {
// The following fields are protected by the hchan.lock of the
// channel this sudog is blocking on. shrinkstack depends on
// this for sudogs involved in channel ops.
g *g
next *sudog
prev *sudog
elem unsafe.Pointer // data element (may point to stack)
// The following fields are never accessed concurrently.
// For channels, waitlink is only accessed by g.
// For semaphores, all fields (including the ones above)
// are only accessed when holding a semaRoot lock.
acquiretime int64
releasetime int64
ticket uint32
// isSelect indicates g is participating in a select, so
// g.selectDone must be CAS'd to win the wake-up race.
isSelect bool
// success indicates whether communication over channel c
// succeeded. It is true if the goroutine was awoken because a
// value was delivered over channel c, and false if awoken
// because c was closed.
success bool
parent *sudog // semaRoot binary tree
waitlink *sudog // g.waiting list or semaRoot
waittail *sudog // semaRoot
c *hchan // channel
type libcall struct {
fn uintptr
n uintptr // number of parameters
args uintptr // parameters
r1 uintptr // return values
r2 uintptr
err uintptr // error number
// Stack describes a Go execution stack.
// The bounds of the stack are exactly [lo, hi),
// with no implicit data structures on either side.
type stack struct {
lo uintptr
hi uintptr
// heldLockInfo gives info on a held lock and the rank of that lock
type heldLockInfo struct {
lockAddr uintptr
rank lockRank
type g struct {
// Stack parameters.
// stack describes the actual stack memory: [stack.lo, stack.hi).
// stackguard0 is the stack pointer compared in the Go stack growth prologue.
// It is stack.lo+StackGuard normally, but can be StackPreempt to trigger a preemption.
// stackguard1 is the stack pointer compared in the C stack growth prologue.
// It is stack.lo+StackGuard on g0 and gsignal stacks.
// It is ~0 on other goroutine stacks, to trigger a call to morestackc (and crash).
stack stack // offset known to runtime/cgo
stackguard0 uintptr // offset known to liblink
stackguard1 uintptr // offset known to liblink
_panic *_panic // innermost panic - offset known to liblink
_defer *_defer // innermost defer
m *m // current m; offset known to arm liblink
sched gobuf
syscallsp uintptr // if status==Gsyscall, syscallsp = sched.sp to use during gc
syscallpc uintptr // if status==Gsyscall, syscallpc = sched.pc to use during gc
stktopsp uintptr // expected sp at top of stack, to check in traceback
// param is a generic pointer parameter field used to pass
// values in particular contexts where other storage for the
// parameter would be difficult to find. It is currently used
// in three ways:
// 1. When a channel operation wakes up a blocked goroutine, it sets param to
// point to the sudog of the completed blocking operation.
// 2. By gcAssistAlloc1 to signal back to its caller that the goroutine completed
// the GC cycle. It is unsafe to do so in any other way, because the goroutine's
// stack may have moved in the meantime.
// 3. By debugCallWrap to pass parameters to a new goroutine because allocating a
// closure in the runtime is forbidden.
param unsafe.Pointer
atomicstatus uint32
stackLock uint32 // sigprof/scang lock; TODO: fold in to atomicstatus
goid int64
schedlink guintptr
waitsince int64 // approx time when the g become blocked
waitreason waitReason // if status==Gwaiting
preempt bool // preemption signal, duplicates stackguard0 = stackpreempt
preemptStop bool // transition to _Gpreempted on preemption; otherwise, just deschedule
preemptShrink bool // shrink stack at synchronous safe point
// asyncSafePoint is set if g is stopped at an asynchronous
// safe point. This means there are frames on the stack
// without precise pointer information.
asyncSafePoint bool
paniconfault bool // panic (instead of crash) on unexpected fault address
gcscandone bool // g has scanned stack; protected by _Gscan bit in status
throwsplit bool // must not split stack
// activeStackChans indicates that there are unlocked channels
// pointing into this goroutine's stack. If true, stack
// copying needs to acquire channel locks to protect these
// areas of the stack.
activeStackChans bool
// parkingOnChan indicates that the goroutine is about to
// park on a chansend or chanrecv. Used to signal an unsafe point
// for stack shrinking. It's a boolean value, but is updated atomically.
parkingOnChan uint8
raceignore int8 // ignore race detection events
sysblocktraced bool // StartTrace has emitted EvGoInSyscall about this goroutine
tracking bool // whether we're tracking this G for sched latency statistics
trackingSeq uint8 // used to decide whether to track this G
runnableStamp int64 // timestamp of when the G last became runnable, only used when tracking
runnableTime int64 // the amount of time spent runnable, cleared when running, only used when tracking
sysexitticks int64 // cputicks when syscall has returned (for tracing)
traceseq uint64 // trace event sequencer
tracelastp puintptr // last P emitted an event for this goroutine
lockedm muintptr
sig uint32
writebuf []byte
sigcode0 uintptr
sigcode1 uintptr
sigpc uintptr
gopc uintptr // pc of go statement that created this goroutine
ancestors *[]ancestorInfo // ancestor information goroutine(s) that created this goroutine (only used if debug.tracebackancestors)
startpc uintptr // pc of goroutine function
racectx uintptr
waiting *sudog // sudog structures this g is waiting on (that have a valid elem ptr); in lock order
cgoCtxt []uintptr // cgo traceback context
labels unsafe.Pointer // profiler labels
timer *timer // cached timer for time.Sleep
selectDone uint32 // are we participating in a select and did someone win the race?
// goroutineProfiled indicates the status of this goroutine's stack for the
// current in-progress goroutine profile
goroutineProfiled goroutineProfileStateHolder
// Per-G GC state
// gcAssistBytes is this G's GC assist credit in terms of
// bytes allocated. If this is positive, then the G has credit
// to allocate gcAssistBytes bytes without assisting. If this
// is negative, then the G must correct this by performing
// scan work. We track this in bytes to make it fast to update
// and check for debt in the malloc hot path. The assist ratio
// determines how this corresponds to scan work debt.
gcAssistBytes int64
// gTrackingPeriod is the number of transitions out of _Grunning between
// latency tracking runs.
const gTrackingPeriod = 8
const (
// tlsSlots is the number of pointer-sized slots reserved for TLS on some platforms,
// like Windows.
tlsSlots = 6
tlsSize = tlsSlots * goarch.PtrSize
type m struct {
g0 *g // goroutine with scheduling stack
morebuf gobuf // gobuf arg to morestack
divmod uint32 // div/mod denominator for arm - known to liblink
_ uint32 // align next field to 8 bytes
// Fields not known to debuggers.
procid uint64 // for debuggers, but offset not hard-coded
gsignal *g // signal-handling g
goSigStack gsignalStack // Go-allocated signal handling stack
sigmask sigset // storage for saved signal mask
tls [tlsSlots]uintptr // thread-local storage (for x86 extern register)
mstartfn func()
curg *g // current running goroutine
caughtsig guintptr // goroutine running during fatal signal
p puintptr // attached p for executing go code (nil if not executing go code)
nextp puintptr
oldp puintptr // the p that was attached before executing a syscall
id int64
mallocing int32
throwing throwType
preemptoff string // if != "", keep curg running on this m
locks int32
dying int32
profilehz int32
spinning bool // m is out of work and is actively looking for work
blocked bool // m is blocked on a note
newSigstack bool // minit on C thread called sigaltstack
printlock int8
incgo bool // m is executing a cgo call
freeWait uint32 // if == 0, safe to free g0 and delete m (atomic)
fastrand uint64
needextram bool
traceback uint8
ncgocall uint64 // number of cgo calls in total
ncgo int32 // number of cgo calls currently in progress
cgoCallersUse uint32 // if non-zero, cgoCallers in use temporarily
cgoCallers *cgoCallers // cgo traceback if crashing in cgo call
park note
alllink *m // on allm
schedlink muintptr
lockedg guintptr
createstack [32]uintptr // stack that created this thread.
lockedExt uint32 // tracking for external LockOSThread
lockedInt uint32 // tracking for internal lockOSThread
nextwaitm muintptr // next m waiting for lock
waitunlockf func(*g, unsafe.Pointer) bool
waitlock unsafe.Pointer
waittraceev byte
waittraceskip int
startingtrace bool
syscalltick uint32
freelink *m // on sched.freem
// these are here because they are too large to be on the stack
// of low-level NOSPLIT functions.
libcall libcall
libcallpc uintptr // for cpu profiler
libcallsp uintptr
libcallg guintptr
syscall libcall // stores syscall parameters on windows
vdsoSP uintptr // SP for traceback while in VDSO call (0 if not in call)
vdsoPC uintptr // PC for traceback while in VDSO call
// preemptGen counts the number of completed preemption
// signals. This is used to detect when a preemption is
// requested, but fails. Accessed atomically.
preemptGen uint32
// Whether this is a pending preemption signal on this M.
// Accessed atomically.
signalPending uint32
// Up to 10 locks held by this m, maintained by the lock ranking code.
locksHeldLen int
locksHeld [10]heldLockInfo
type p struct {
id int32
status uint32 // one of pidle/prunning/...
link puintptr
schedtick uint32 // incremented on every scheduler call
syscalltick uint32 // incremented on every system call
sysmontick sysmontick // last tick observed by sysmon
m muintptr // back-link to associated m (nil if idle)
mcache *mcache
pcache pageCache
raceprocctx uintptr
deferpool []*_defer // pool of available defer structs (see panic.go)
deferpoolbuf [32]*_defer
// Cache of goroutine ids, amortizes accesses to runtime·sched.goidgen.
goidcache uint64
goidcacheend uint64
// Queue of runnable goroutines. Accessed without lock.
runqhead uint32
runqtail uint32
runq [256]guintptr
// runnext, if non-nil, is a runnable G that was ready'd by
// the current G and should be run next instead of what's in
// runq if there's time remaining in the running G's time
// slice. It will inherit the time left in the current time
// slice. If a set of goroutines is locked in a
// communicate-and-wait pattern, this schedules that set as a
// unit and eliminates the (potentially large) scheduling
// latency that otherwise arises from adding the ready'd
// goroutines to the end of the run queue.
// Note that while other P's may atomically CAS this to zero,
// only the owner P can CAS it to a valid G.
runnext guintptr
// Available G's (status == Gdead)
gFree struct {
n int32
sudogcache []*sudog
sudogbuf [128]*sudog
// Cache of mspan objects from the heap.
mspancache struct {
// We need an explicit length here because this field is used
// in allocation codepaths where write barriers are not allowed,
// and eliminating the write barrier/keeping it eliminated from
// slice updates is tricky, moreso than just managing the length
// ourselves.
len int
buf [128]*mspan
tracebuf traceBufPtr
// traceSweep indicates the sweep events should be traced.
// This is used to defer the sweep start event until a span
// has actually been swept.
traceSweep bool
// traceSwept and traceReclaimed track the number of bytes
// swept and reclaimed by sweeping in the current sweep loop.
traceSwept, traceReclaimed uintptr
palloc persistentAlloc // per-P to avoid mutex
_ uint32 // Alignment for atomic fields below
// The when field of the first entry on the timer heap.
// This is updated using atomic functions.
// This is 0 if the timer heap is empty.
timer0When uint64
// The earliest known nextwhen field of a timer with
// timerModifiedEarlier status. Because the timer may have been
// modified again, there need not be any timer with this value.
// This is updated using atomic functions.
// This is 0 if there are no timerModifiedEarlier timers.
timerModifiedEarliest uint64
// Per-P GC state
gcAssistTime int64 // Nanoseconds in assistAlloc
gcFractionalMarkTime int64 // Nanoseconds in fractional mark worker (atomic)
// gcMarkWorkerMode is the mode for the next mark worker to run in.
// That is, this is used to communicate with the worker goroutine
// selected for immediate execution by
// gcController.findRunnableGCWorker. When scheduling other goroutines,
// this field must be set to gcMarkWorkerNotWorker.
gcMarkWorkerMode gcMarkWorkerMode
// gcMarkWorkerStartTime is the nanotime() at which the most recent
// mark worker started.
gcMarkWorkerStartTime int64
// gcw is this P's GC work buffer cache. The work buffer is
// filled by write barriers, drained by mutator assists, and
// disposed on certain GC state transitions.
gcw gcWork
// wbBuf is this P's GC write barrier buffer.
// TODO: Consider caching this in the running G.
wbBuf wbBuf
runSafePointFn uint32 // if 1, run sched.safePointFn at next safe point
// statsSeq is a counter indicating whether this P is currently
// writing any stats. Its value is even when not, odd when it is.
statsSeq uint32
// Lock for timers. We normally access the timers while running
// on this P, but the scheduler can also do it from a different P.
timersLock mutex
// Actions to take at some time. This is used to implement the
// standard library's time package.
// Must hold timersLock to access.
timers []*timer
// Number of timers in P's heap.
// Modified using atomic instructions.
numTimers uint32
// Number of timerDeleted timers in P's heap.
// Modified using atomic instructions.
deletedTimers uint32
// Race context used while executing timer functions.
timerRaceCtx uintptr
// scannableStackSizeDelta accumulates the amount of stack space held by
// live goroutines (i.e. those eligible for stack scanning).
// Flushed to gcController.scannableStackSize once scannableStackSizeSlack
// or -scannableStackSizeSlack is reached.
scannableStackSizeDelta int64
// preempt is set to indicate that this P should be enter the
// scheduler ASAP (regardless of what G is running on it).
preempt bool
// Padding is no longer needed. False sharing is now not a worry because p is large enough
// that its size class is an integer multiple of the cache line size (for any of our architectures).
type schedt struct {
// accessed atomically. keep at top to ensure alignment on 32-bit systems.
goidgen uint64
lastpoll uint64 // time of last network poll, 0 if currently polling
pollUntil uint64 // time to which current poll is sleeping
lock mutex
// When increasing nmidle, nmidlelocked, nmsys, or nmfreed, be
// sure to call checkdead().
midle muintptr // idle m's waiting for work
nmidle int32 // number of idle m's waiting for work
nmidlelocked int32 // number of locked m's waiting for work
mnext int64 // number of m's that have been created and next M ID
maxmcount int32 // maximum number of m's allowed (or die)
nmsys int32 // number of system m's not counted for deadlock
nmfreed int64 // cumulative number of freed m's
ngsys uint32 // number of system goroutines; updated atomically
pidle puintptr // idle p's
npidle uint32
nmspinning uint32 // See "Worker thread parking/unparking" comment in proc.go.
// Global runnable queue.
runq gQueue
runqsize int32
// disable controls selective disabling of the scheduler.
// Use schedEnableUser to control this.
// disable is protected by sched.lock.
disable struct {
// user disables scheduling of user goroutines.
user bool
runnable gQueue // pending runnable Gs
n int32 // length of runnable
// Global cache of dead G's.
gFree struct {
lock mutex
stack gList // Gs with stacks
noStack gList // Gs without stacks
n int32
// Central cache of sudog structs.
sudoglock mutex
sudogcache *sudog
// Central pool of available defer structs.
deferlock mutex
deferpool *_defer
// freem is the list of m's waiting to be freed when their
// m.exited is set. Linked through m.freelink.
freem *m
gcwaiting uint32 // gc is waiting to run
stopwait int32
stopnote note
sysmonwait uint32
sysmonnote note
// safepointFn should be called on each P at the next GC
// safepoint if p.runSafePointFn is set.
safePointFn func(*p)
safePointWait int32
safePointNote note
profilehz int32 // cpu profiling rate
procresizetime int64 // nanotime() of last change to gomaxprocs
totaltime int64 // ∫gomaxprocs dt up to procresizetime
// sysmonlock protects sysmon's actions on the runtime.
// Acquire and hold this mutex to block sysmon from interacting
// with the rest of the runtime.
sysmonlock mutex
// timeToRun is a distribution of scheduling latencies, defined
// as the sum of time a G spends in the _Grunnable state before
// it transitions to _Grunning.
// timeToRun is protected by sched.lock.
timeToRun timeHistogram
// Values for the flags field of a sigTabT.
const (
_SigNotify = 1 << iota // let signal.Notify have signal, even if from kernel
_SigKill // if signal.Notify doesn't take it, exit quietly
_SigThrow // if signal.Notify doesn't take it, exit loudly
_SigPanic // if the signal is from the kernel, panic
_SigDefault // if the signal isn't explicitly requested, don't monitor it
_SigGoExit // cause all runtime procs to exit (only used on Plan 9).
_SigSetStack // Don't explicitly install handler, but add SA_ONSTACK to existing libc handler
_SigUnblock // always unblock; see blockableSig
_SigIgn // _SIG_DFL action is to ignore the signal
// Layout of in-memory per-function information prepared by linker
// See
// Keep in sync with linker (../cmd/link/internal/ld/pcln.go:/pclntab)
// and with package debug/gosym and with symtab.go in package runtime.
type _func struct {
entryoff uint32 // start pc, as offset from moduledata.text/pcHeader.textStart
nameoff int32 // function name
args int32 // in/out args size
deferreturn uint32 // offset of start of a deferreturn call instruction from entry, if any.
pcsp uint32
pcfile uint32
pcln uint32
npcdata uint32
cuOffset uint32 // runtime.cutab offset of this function's CU
funcID funcID // set for certain special runtime functions
flag funcFlag
_ [1]byte // pad
nfuncdata uint8 // must be last, must end on a uint32-aligned boundary
// Pseudo-Func that is returned for PCs that occur in inlined code.
// A *Func can be either a *_func or a *funcinl, and they are distinguished
// by the first uintptr.
type funcinl struct {
ones uint32 // set to ^0 to distinguish from _func
entry uintptr // entry of the real (the "outermost") frame
name string
file string
line int
// layout of Itab known to compilers
// allocated in non-garbage-collected memory
// Needs to be in sync with
// ../cmd/compile/internal/reflectdata/reflect.go:/^func.WriteTabs.
type itab struct {
inter *interfacetype
_type *_type
hash uint32 // copy of _type.hash. Used for type switches.
_ [4]byte
fun [1]uintptr // variable sized. fun[0]==0 means _type does not implement inter.
// Lock-free stack node.
// Also known to export_test.go.
type lfnode struct {
next uint64
pushcnt uintptr
type forcegcstate struct {
lock mutex
g *g
idle uint32
// extendRandom extends the random numbers in r[:n] to the whole slice r.
// Treats n<0 as n==0.
func extendRandom(r []byte, n int) {
if n < 0 {
n = 0
for n < len(r) {
// Extend random bits using hash function & time seed
w := n
if w > 16 {
w = 16
h := memhash(unsafe.Pointer(&r[n-w]), uintptr(nanotime()), uintptr(w))
for i := 0; i < goarch.PtrSize && n < len(r); i++ {
r[n] = byte(h)
h >>= 8
// A _defer holds an entry on the list of deferred calls.
// If you add a field here, add code to clear it in deferProcStack.
// This struct must match the code in cmd/compile/internal/ssagen/ssa.go:deferstruct
// and cmd/compile/internal/ssagen/ssa.go:(*state).call.
// Some defers will be allocated on the stack and some on the heap.
// All defers are logically part of the stack, so write barriers to
// initialize them are not required. All defers must be manually scanned,
// and for heap defers, marked.
type _defer struct {
started bool
heap bool
// openDefer indicates that this _defer is for a frame with open-coded
// defers. We have only one defer record for the entire frame (which may
// currently have 0, 1, or more defers active).
openDefer bool
sp uintptr // sp at time of defer
pc uintptr // pc at time of defer
fn func() // can be nil for open-coded defers
_panic *_panic // panic that is running defer
link *_defer // next defer on G; can point to either heap or stack!
// If openDefer is true, the fields below record values about the stack
// frame and associated function that has the open-coded defer(s). sp
// above will be the sp for the frame, and pc will be address of the
// deferreturn call in the function.
fd unsafe.Pointer // funcdata for the function associated with the frame
varp uintptr // value of varp for the stack frame
// framepc is the current pc associated with the stack frame. Together,
// with sp above (which is the sp associated with the stack frame),
// framepc/sp can be used as pc/sp pair to continue a stack trace via
// gentraceback().
framepc uintptr
// A _panic holds information about an active panic.
// A _panic value must only ever live on the stack.
// The argp and link fields are stack pointers, but don't need special
// handling during stack growth: because they are pointer-typed and
// _panic values only live on the stack, regular stack pointer
// adjustment takes care of them.
type _panic struct {
argp unsafe.Pointer // pointer to arguments of deferred call run during panic; cannot move - known to liblink
arg any // argument to panic
link *_panic // link to earlier panic
pc uintptr // where to return to in runtime if this panic is bypassed
sp unsafe.Pointer // where to return to in runtime if this panic is bypassed
recovered bool // whether this panic is over
aborted bool // the panic was aborted
goexit bool
// stack traces
type stkframe struct {
fn funcInfo // function being run
pc uintptr // program counter within fn
continpc uintptr // program counter where execution can continue, or 0 if not
lr uintptr // program counter at caller aka link register
sp uintptr // stack pointer at pc
fp uintptr // stack pointer at caller aka frame pointer
varp uintptr // top of local variables
argp uintptr // pointer to function arguments
arglen uintptr // number of bytes at argp
argmap *bitvector // force use of this argmap
// ancestorInfo records details of where a goroutine was started.
type ancestorInfo struct {
pcs []uintptr // pcs from the stack of this goroutine
goid int64 // goroutine id of this goroutine; original goroutine possibly dead
gopc uintptr // pc of go statement that created this goroutine
const (
_TraceRuntimeFrames = 1 << iota // include frames for internal runtime functions.
_TraceTrap // the initial PC, SP are from a trap, not a return PC from a call
_TraceJumpStack // if traceback is on a systemstack, resume trace at g that called into it
// The maximum number of frames we print for a traceback
const _TracebackMaxFrames = 100
// A waitReason explains why a goroutine has been stopped.
// See gopark. Do not re-use waitReasons, add new ones.
type waitReason uint8
const (
waitReasonZero waitReason = iota // ""
waitReasonGCAssistMarking // "GC assist marking"
waitReasonIOWait // "IO wait"
waitReasonChanReceiveNilChan // "chan receive (nil chan)"
waitReasonChanSendNilChan // "chan send (nil chan)"
waitReasonDumpingHeap // "dumping heap"
waitReasonGarbageCollection // "garbage collection"
waitReasonGarbageCollectionScan // "garbage collection scan"
waitReasonPanicWait // "panicwait"
waitReasonSelect // "select"
waitReasonSelectNoCases // "select (no cases)"
waitReasonGCAssistWait // "GC assist wait"
waitReasonGCSweepWait // "GC sweep wait"
waitReasonGCScavengeWait // "GC scavenge wait"
waitReasonChanReceive // "chan receive"
waitReasonChanSend // "chan send"
waitReasonFinalizerWait // "finalizer wait"
waitReasonForceGCIdle // "force gc (idle)"
waitReasonSemacquire // "semacquire"
waitReasonSleep // "sleep"
waitReasonSyncCondWait // "sync.Cond.Wait"
waitReasonTimerGoroutineIdle // "timer goroutine (idle)"
waitReasonTraceReaderBlocked // "trace reader (blocked)"
waitReasonWaitForGCCycle // "wait for GC cycle"
waitReasonGCWorkerIdle // "GC worker (idle)"
waitReasonPreempted // "preempted"
waitReasonDebugCall // "debug call"
var waitReasonStrings = [...]string{
waitReasonZero: "",
waitReasonGCAssistMarking: "GC assist marking",
waitReasonIOWait: "IO wait",
waitReasonChanReceiveNilChan: "chan receive (nil chan)",
waitReasonChanSendNilChan: "chan send (nil chan)",
waitReasonDumpingHeap: "dumping heap",
waitReasonGarbageCollection: "garbage collection",
waitReasonGarbageCollectionScan: "garbage collection scan",
waitReasonPanicWait: "panicwait",
waitReasonSelect: "select",
waitReasonSelectNoCases: "select (no cases)",
waitReasonGCAssistWait: "GC assist wait",
waitReasonGCSweepWait: "GC sweep wait",
waitReasonGCScavengeWait: "GC scavenge wait",
waitReasonChanReceive: "chan receive",
waitReasonChanSend: "chan send",
waitReasonFinalizerWait: "finalizer wait",
waitReasonForceGCIdle: "force gc (idle)",
waitReasonSemacquire: "semacquire",
waitReasonSleep: "sleep",
waitReasonSyncCondWait: "sync.Cond.Wait",
waitReasonTimerGoroutineIdle: "timer goroutine (idle)",
waitReasonTraceReaderBlocked: "trace reader (blocked)",
waitReasonWaitForGCCycle: "wait for GC cycle",
waitReasonGCWorkerIdle: "GC worker (idle)",
waitReasonPreempted: "preempted",
waitReasonDebugCall: "debug call",
func (w waitReason) String() string {
if w < 0 || w >= waitReason(len(waitReasonStrings)) {
return "unknown wait reason"
return waitReasonStrings[w]
var (
allm *m
gomaxprocs int32
ncpu int32
forcegc forcegcstate
sched schedt
newprocs int32
// allpLock protects P-less reads and size changes of allp, idlepMask,
// and timerpMask, and all writes to allp.
allpLock mutex
// len(allp) == gomaxprocs; may change at safe points, otherwise
// immutable.
allp []*p
// Bitmask of Ps in _Pidle list, one bit per P. Reads and writes must
// be atomic. Length may change at safe points.
// Each P must update only its own bit. In order to maintain
// consistency, a P going idle must the idle mask simultaneously with
// updates to the idle P list under the sched.lock, otherwise a racing
// pidleget may clear the mask before pidleput sets the mask,
// corrupting the bitmap.
// N.B., procresize takes ownership of all Ps in stopTheWorldWithSema.
idlepMask pMask
// Bitmask of Ps that may have a timer, one bit per P. Reads and writes
// must be atomic. Length may change at safe points.
timerpMask pMask
// Pool of GC parked background workers. Entries are type
// *gcBgMarkWorkerNode.
gcBgMarkWorkerPool lfstack
// Total number of gcBgMarkWorker goroutines. Protected by worldsema.
gcBgMarkWorkerCount int32
// Information about what cpu features are available.
// Packages outside the runtime should not use these
// as they are not an external api.
// Set on startup in asm_{386,amd64}.s
processorVersionInfo uint32
isIntel bool
goarm uint8 // set by cmd/link on arm systems
// Set by the linker so the runtime can determine the buildmode.
var (
islibrary bool // -buildmode=c-shared
isarchive bool // -buildmode=c-archive
// Must agree with internal/buildcfg.FramePointerEnabled.
const framepointer_enabled = GOARCH == "amd64" || GOARCH == "arm64"