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// Copyright 2015 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
//go:build darwin && !ios
// +build darwin,!ios
package gldriver
#cgo LDFLAGS: -framework Cocoa -framework OpenGL
#include <OpenGL/gl3.h>
#import <Carbon/Carbon.h> // for HIToolbox/Events.h
#import <Cocoa/Cocoa.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
void startDriver();
void stopDriver();
void makeCurrentContext(uintptr_t ctx);
void flushContext(uintptr_t ctx);
uintptr_t doNewWindow(int width, int height, char* title);
void doShowWindow(uintptr_t id);
void doCloseWindow(uintptr_t id);
uint64_t threadID();
import "C"
import (
const useLifecycler = true
// TODO: change this to true, after manual testing on OS X.
const handleSizeEventsAtChannelReceive = false
var initThreadID C.uint64_t
func init() {
// Lock the goroutine responsible for initialization to an OS thread.
// This means the goroutine running main (and calling startDriver below)
// is locked to the OS thread that started the program. This is
// necessary for the correct delivery of Cocoa events to the process.
// A discussion on this topic:
initThreadID = C.threadID()
func newWindow(opts *screen.NewWindowOptions) (uintptr, error) {
width, height := optsSize(opts)
title := C.CString(opts.GetTitle())
return uintptr(C.doNewWindow(,, title)), nil
func initWindow(w *windowImpl) {
w.glctx, w.worker = gl.NewContext()
func showWindow(w *windowImpl) {
//export preparedOpenGL
func preparedOpenGL(id, ctx, vba uintptr) {
w :=[id]
w.ctx = ctx
go drawLoop(w, vba)
func closeWindow(id uintptr) {
var mainCallback func(screen.Screen)
func main(f func(screen.Screen)) error {
if tid := C.threadID(); tid != initThreadID {
log.Fatalf("gldriver.Main called on thread %d, but gldriver.init ran on %d", tid, initThreadID)
mainCallback = f
return nil
//export driverStarted
func driverStarted() {
go func() {
//export drawgl
func drawgl(id uintptr) {
w :=[id]
if w == nil {
return // closing window
// TODO: is this necessary?
w.lifecycler.SendEvent(w, w.glctx)
w.Send(paint.Event{External: true})
// drawLoop is the primary drawing loop.
// After Cocoa has created an NSWindow and called prepareOpenGL,
// it starts drawLoop on a locked goroutine to handle OpenGL calls.
// The screen is drawn every time a paint.Event is received, which can be
// triggered either by the user or by Cocoa via drawgl (for example, when
// the window is resized).
func drawLoop(w *windowImpl, vba uintptr) {
// Starting in OS X 10.11 (El Capitan), the vertex array is
// occasionally getting unbound when the context changes threads.
// Avoid this by binding it again.
if errno := C.glGetError(); errno != 0 {
panic(fmt.Sprintf("gldriver: glBindVertexArray failed: %d", errno))
workAvailable := w.worker.WorkAvailable()
// TODO(crawshaw): exit this goroutine on Release.
for {
select {
case <-workAvailable:
case <-w.publish:
for {
select {
case <-workAvailable:
break loop
w.publishDone <- screen.PublishResult{}
//export setGeom
func setGeom(id uintptr, ppp float32, widthPx, heightPx int) {
w :=[id]
if w == nil {
return // closing window
sz := size.Event{
WidthPx: widthPx,
HeightPx: heightPx,
WidthPt: geom.Pt(float32(widthPx) / ppp),
HeightPt: geom.Pt(float32(heightPx) / ppp),
PixelsPerPt: ppp,
if !handleSizeEventsAtChannelReceive {
w.szMu.Lock() = sz
//export windowClosing
func windowClosing(id uintptr) {
sendLifecycle(id, (*lifecycler.State).SetDead, true)
func sendWindowEvent(id uintptr, e interface{}) {
w :=[id]
if w == nil {
return // closing window
var mods = [...]struct {
flags uint32
code uint16
mod key.Modifiers
// Left and right variants of modifier keys have their own masks,
// but they are not documented. These were determined empirically.
{1<<17 | 0x102, C.kVK_Shift, key.ModShift},
{1<<17 | 0x104, C.kVK_RightShift, key.ModShift},
{1<<18 | 0x101, C.kVK_Control, key.ModControl},
{33<<13 | 0x100, C.kVK_RightControl, key.ModControl},
{1<<19 | 0x120, C.kVK_Option, key.ModAlt},
{1<<19 | 0x140, C.kVK_RightOption, key.ModAlt},
{1<<20 | 0x108, C.kVK_Command, key.ModMeta},
{1<<20 | 0x110, 0x36 /* kVK_RightCommand */, key.ModMeta},
func cocoaMods(flags uint32) (m key.Modifiers) {
for _, mod := range mods {
if flags&mod.flags == mod.flags {
m |= mod.mod
return m
func cocoaMouseDir(ty int32) mouse.Direction {
switch ty {
case C.NSLeftMouseDown, C.NSRightMouseDown, C.NSOtherMouseDown:
return mouse.DirPress
case C.NSLeftMouseUp, C.NSRightMouseUp, C.NSOtherMouseUp:
return mouse.DirRelease
default: // dragged
return mouse.DirNone
func cocoaMouseButton(button int32) mouse.Button {
switch button {
case 0:
return mouse.ButtonLeft
case 1:
return mouse.ButtonRight
case 2:
return mouse.ButtonMiddle
return mouse.ButtonNone
//export mouseEvent
func mouseEvent(id uintptr, x, y, dx, dy float32, ty, button int32, flags uint32) {
cmButton := mouse.ButtonNone
switch ty {
cmButton = cocoaMouseButton(button)
case C.NSMouseMoved, C.NSLeftMouseDragged, C.NSRightMouseDragged, C.NSOtherMouseDragged:
// No-op.
case C.NSScrollWheel:
// Note that the direction of scrolling is inverted by default
// on OS X by the "natural scrolling" setting. At the Cocoa
// level this inversion is applied to trackpads and mice behind
// the scenes, and the value of dy goes in the direction the OS
// wants scrolling to go.
// This means the same trackpad/mouse motion on OS X and Linux
// can produce wheel events in opposite directions, but the
// direction matches what other programs on the OS do.
// If we wanted to expose the phsyical device motion in the
// event we could use [NSEvent isDirectionInvertedFromDevice]
// to know if "natural scrolling" is enabled.
// TODO: On a trackpad, a scroll can be a drawn-out affair with a
// distinct beginning and end. Should the intermediate events be
// DirNone?
// TODO: handle horizontal scrolling
button := mouse.ButtonWheelUp
if dy < 0 {
dy = -dy
button = mouse.ButtonWheelDown
e := mouse.Event{
X: x,
Y: y,
Button: button,
Direction: mouse.DirStep,
Modifiers: cocoaMods(flags),
for delta := int(dy); delta != 0; delta-- {
sendWindowEvent(id, e)
sendWindowEvent(id, mouse.Event{
X: x,
Y: y,
Button: cmButton,
Direction: cocoaMouseDir(ty),
Modifiers: cocoaMods(flags),
//export keyEvent
func keyEvent(id uintptr, runeVal rune, dir uint8, code uint16, flags uint32) {
sendWindowEvent(id, key.Event{
Rune: cocoaRune(runeVal),
Direction: key.Direction(dir),
Code: cocoaKeyCode(code),
Modifiers: cocoaMods(flags),
//export flagEvent
func flagEvent(id uintptr, flags uint32) {
for _, mod := range mods {
if flags&mod.flags == mod.flags && lastFlags&mod.flags != mod.flags {
keyEvent(id, -1, C.NSKeyDown, mod.code, flags)
if lastFlags&mod.flags == mod.flags && flags&mod.flags != mod.flags {
keyEvent(id, -1, C.NSKeyUp, mod.code, flags)
lastFlags = flags
var lastFlags uint32
func sendLifecycle(id uintptr, setter func(*lifecycler.State, bool), val bool) {
w :=[id]
if w == nil {
setter(&w.lifecycler, val)
w.lifecycler.SendEvent(w, w.glctx)
func sendLifecycleAll(dead bool) {
windows := []*windowImpl{}
for _, w := range {
windows = append(windows, w)
for _, w := range windows {
if dead {
w.lifecycler.SendEvent(w, w.glctx)
//export lifecycleDeadAll
func lifecycleDeadAll() { sendLifecycleAll(true) }
//export lifecycleHideAll
func lifecycleHideAll() { sendLifecycleAll(false) }
//export lifecycleVisible
func lifecycleVisible(id uintptr, val bool) {
sendLifecycle(id, (*lifecycler.State).SetVisible, val)
//export lifecycleFocused
func lifecycleFocused(id uintptr, val bool) {
sendLifecycle(id, (*lifecycler.State).SetFocused, val)
// cocoaRune marks the Carbon/Cocoa private-range unicode rune representing
// a non-unicode key event to -1, used for Rune in the key package.
func cocoaRune(r rune) rune {
if '\uE000' <= r && r <= '\uF8FF' {
return -1
return r
// cocoaKeyCode converts a Carbon/Cocoa virtual key code number
// into the standard keycodes used by the key package.
// To get a sense of the key map, see the diagram on
func cocoaKeyCode(vkcode uint16) key.Code {
switch vkcode {
case C.kVK_ANSI_A:
return key.CodeA
case C.kVK_ANSI_B:
return key.CodeB
case C.kVK_ANSI_C:
return key.CodeC
case C.kVK_ANSI_D:
return key.CodeD
case C.kVK_ANSI_E:
return key.CodeE
case C.kVK_ANSI_F:
return key.CodeF
case C.kVK_ANSI_G:
return key.CodeG
case C.kVK_ANSI_H:
return key.CodeH
case C.kVK_ANSI_I:
return key.CodeI
case C.kVK_ANSI_J:
return key.CodeJ
case C.kVK_ANSI_K:
return key.CodeK
case C.kVK_ANSI_L:
return key.CodeL
case C.kVK_ANSI_M:
return key.CodeM
case C.kVK_ANSI_N:
return key.CodeN
case C.kVK_ANSI_O:
return key.CodeO
case C.kVK_ANSI_P:
return key.CodeP
case C.kVK_ANSI_Q:
return key.CodeQ
case C.kVK_ANSI_R:
return key.CodeR
case C.kVK_ANSI_S:
return key.CodeS
case C.kVK_ANSI_T:
return key.CodeT
case C.kVK_ANSI_U:
return key.CodeU
case C.kVK_ANSI_V:
return key.CodeV
case C.kVK_ANSI_W:
return key.CodeW
case C.kVK_ANSI_X:
return key.CodeX
case C.kVK_ANSI_Y:
return key.CodeY
case C.kVK_ANSI_Z:
return key.CodeZ
case C.kVK_ANSI_1:
return key.Code1
case C.kVK_ANSI_2:
return key.Code2
case C.kVK_ANSI_3:
return key.Code3
case C.kVK_ANSI_4:
return key.Code4
case C.kVK_ANSI_5:
return key.Code5
case C.kVK_ANSI_6:
return key.Code6
case C.kVK_ANSI_7:
return key.Code7
case C.kVK_ANSI_8:
return key.Code8
case C.kVK_ANSI_9:
return key.Code9
case C.kVK_ANSI_0:
return key.Code0
// TODO: move the rest of these codes to constants in key.go
// if we are happy with them.
case C.kVK_Return:
return key.CodeReturnEnter
case C.kVK_Escape:
return key.CodeEscape
case C.kVK_Delete:
return key.CodeDeleteBackspace
case C.kVK_Tab:
return key.CodeTab
case C.kVK_Space:
return key.CodeSpacebar
case C.kVK_ANSI_Minus:
return key.CodeHyphenMinus
case C.kVK_ANSI_Equal:
return key.CodeEqualSign
case C.kVK_ANSI_LeftBracket:
return key.CodeLeftSquareBracket
case C.kVK_ANSI_RightBracket:
return key.CodeRightSquareBracket
case C.kVK_ANSI_Backslash:
return key.CodeBackslash
// 50: Keyboard Non-US "#" and ~
case C.kVK_ANSI_Semicolon:
return key.CodeSemicolon
case C.kVK_ANSI_Quote:
return key.CodeApostrophe
case C.kVK_ANSI_Grave:
return key.CodeGraveAccent
case C.kVK_ANSI_Comma:
return key.CodeComma
case C.kVK_ANSI_Period:
return key.CodeFullStop
case C.kVK_ANSI_Slash:
return key.CodeSlash
case C.kVK_CapsLock:
return key.CodeCapsLock
case C.kVK_F1:
return key.CodeF1
case C.kVK_F2:
return key.CodeF2
case C.kVK_F3:
return key.CodeF3
case C.kVK_F4:
return key.CodeF4
case C.kVK_F5:
return key.CodeF5
case C.kVK_F6:
return key.CodeF6
case C.kVK_F7:
return key.CodeF7
case C.kVK_F8:
return key.CodeF8
case C.kVK_F9:
return key.CodeF9
case C.kVK_F10:
return key.CodeF10
case C.kVK_F11:
return key.CodeF11
case C.kVK_F12:
return key.CodeF12
// 70: PrintScreen
// 71: Scroll Lock
// 72: Pause
// 73: Insert
case C.kVK_Home:
return key.CodeHome
case C.kVK_PageUp:
return key.CodePageUp
case C.kVK_ForwardDelete:
return key.CodeDeleteForward
case C.kVK_End:
return key.CodeEnd
case C.kVK_PageDown:
return key.CodePageDown
case C.kVK_RightArrow:
return key.CodeRightArrow
case C.kVK_LeftArrow:
return key.CodeLeftArrow
case C.kVK_DownArrow:
return key.CodeDownArrow
case C.kVK_UpArrow:
return key.CodeUpArrow
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadClear:
return key.CodeKeypadNumLock
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadDivide:
return key.CodeKeypadSlash
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadMultiply:
return key.CodeKeypadAsterisk
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadMinus:
return key.CodeKeypadHyphenMinus
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadPlus:
return key.CodeKeypadPlusSign
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadEnter:
return key.CodeKeypadEnter
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad1:
return key.CodeKeypad1
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad2:
return key.CodeKeypad2
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad3:
return key.CodeKeypad3
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad4:
return key.CodeKeypad4
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad5:
return key.CodeKeypad5
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad6:
return key.CodeKeypad6
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad7:
return key.CodeKeypad7
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad8:
return key.CodeKeypad8
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad9:
return key.CodeKeypad9
case C.kVK_ANSI_Keypad0:
return key.CodeKeypad0
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadDecimal:
return key.CodeKeypadFullStop
case C.kVK_ANSI_KeypadEquals:
return key.CodeKeypadEqualSign
case C.kVK_F13:
return key.CodeF13
case C.kVK_F14:
return key.CodeF14
case C.kVK_F15:
return key.CodeF15
case C.kVK_F16:
return key.CodeF16
case C.kVK_F17:
return key.CodeF17
case C.kVK_F18:
return key.CodeF18
case C.kVK_F19:
return key.CodeF19
case C.kVK_F20:
return key.CodeF20
// 116: Keyboard Execute
case C.kVK_Help:
return key.CodeHelp
// 118: Keyboard Menu
// 119: Keyboard Select
// 120: Keyboard Stop
// 121: Keyboard Again
// 122: Keyboard Undo
// 123: Keyboard Cut
// 124: Keyboard Copy
// 125: Keyboard Paste
// 126: Keyboard Find
case C.kVK_Mute:
return key.CodeMute
case C.kVK_VolumeUp:
return key.CodeVolumeUp
case C.kVK_VolumeDown:
return key.CodeVolumeDown
// 130: Keyboard Locking Caps Lock
// 131: Keyboard Locking Num Lock
// 132: Keyboard Locking Scroll Lock
// 133: Keyboard Comma
// 134: Keyboard Equal Sign
// ...: Bunch of stuff
case C.kVK_Control:
return key.CodeLeftControl
case C.kVK_Shift:
return key.CodeLeftShift
case C.kVK_Option:
return key.CodeLeftAlt
case C.kVK_Command:
return key.CodeLeftGUI
case C.kVK_RightControl:
return key.CodeRightControl
case C.kVK_RightShift:
return key.CodeRightShift
case C.kVK_RightOption:
return key.CodeRightAlt
// TODO key.CodeRightGUI
return key.CodeUnknown
func surfaceCreate() error {
return errors.New("gldriver: surface creation not implemented on darwin")