blob: 3b4e92591f8eedf0727531a78d2590e45c6fa412 [file] [log] [blame]
// Copyright 2023 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package main
import (
const (
bufferLen = 200_000
warmupCount = 1_000_000
runCount = 5_000_000
type kbyte []byte
type circularBuffer [bufferLen]kbyte
type LB struct {
// Performance measurement stuff
delays []time.Duration // delays observed (for distribution)
worst time.Duration // worst delay observed
// For making sense of the bad outcome.
total time.Duration // total time spent in allocations
allStart time.Time // time (very nearly) at which the trace begins
worstIndex int // index of worst case allocation delay
worstElapsed time.Duration // duration of worst case allocation delay
sink *circularBuffer // assign a pointer here to ensure heap allocation
// How to allocate
// "Fluff" refers to allocating a small fraction of extra quickly-dead objects
// to break up long runs on not-free objects that were once a cause of allocation latency.
doFluff bool
// "Fluff" allocations are all assigned to fluff, so that they are on-heap, but only the last one is live.
fluff kbyte
// The circular buffer can be on the heap, in a global, or on stack.
// This choice affects allocation latency.
howAllocated string
// globalBuffer is the globally-allocated circular buffer,
// for measuring the cost of scanning large global objects.
var globalBuffer circularBuffer
// These three methods pass a differently-allocated circularBuffer
// to the benchmarked "work" to see how that affects allocation tail latency.
func (lb *LB) global(count int) {, count)
for i := range globalBuffer {
globalBuffer[i] = nil
func (lb *LB) heap(count int) {
c := &circularBuffer{}
lb.sink = c // force to heap, count)
lb.sink = nil
func (lb *LB) stack(count int) {
var c circularBuffer, count)
// newSlice allocates a 1k slice of bytes and initializes them all to byte(n)
func (lb *LB) newSlice(n int) kbyte {
m := make(kbyte, 1024)
if lb.doFluff && n&63 == 0 {
lb.fluff = make(kbyte, 1024)
for i := range m {
m[i] = byte(n)
return m
// storeSlice stores a newly allocated 1k slice of bytes at c[count%len(c)]
// It also checks the time needed to do this and records the worst case.
func (lb *LB) storeSlice(c *circularBuffer, count int) {
start := time.Now()
c[count%len(c)] = lb.newSlice(count)
elapsed := time.Since(start)
candElapsed := time.Since(lb.allStart) // Record location of worst in trace
if elapsed > lb.worst {
lb.worst = elapsed
lb.worstIndex = count
lb.worstElapsed = candElapsed
} = time.Duration( + elapsed.Nanoseconds())
lb.delays = append(lb.delays, elapsed)
func (lb *LB) work(c *circularBuffer, count int) {
for i := 0; i < count; i++ {
lb.storeSlice(c, i)
func (lb *LB) doAllocations(count int) {
switch lb.howAllocated {
case "stack":
case "heap":
case "global":
var traceFile string
func flags() (string, bool) {
var howAllocated = "stack"
var doFluff bool
flag.StringVar(&traceFile, "trace", traceFile, "name of trace file to create")
flag.StringVar(&howAllocated, "how", howAllocated, "how the buffer is allocated = {stack,heap,global}")
flag.BoolVar(&doFluff, "fluff", doFluff, "insert 'fluff' into allocation runs to break up sweeps")
switch howAllocated {
case "stack", "heap", "global":
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "-how needs to be one of 'heap', 'stack' or 'global, saw '%s' instead\n", howAllocated)
return howAllocated, doFluff
var reportWorstFlag bool
func (lb0 *LB) bench(b *testing.B) {
if b != nil {
var c *circularBuffer = &circularBuffer{}
lb0.sink = c // force heap allocation
lb0.delays = make([]time.Duration, 0, runCount)
// Warm up heap, virtual memory, address space, etc., warmupCount)
c, lb0.sink = nil, nil
runtime.GC() // Start fresh, GC with all the timers turned off.
lb := &LB{doFluff: lb0.doFluff, howAllocated: lb0.howAllocated, delays: lb0.delays[:0]}
count := runCount
// Confine tracing and timing defers to a small block.
run := func() {
if traceFile != "" {
f, err := os.Create(traceFile)
if err != nil {
if b != nil {
b.Fatalf("Could not create trace file '%s'\n", traceFile)
} else {
fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "Could not create trace file '%s'\n", traceFile)
defer f.Close()
defer trace.Stop()
lb.allStart = time.Now() // this is for trace file navigation, not benchmark timing.
if b != nil {
count = b.N * count
if b.N > 1 {
lb.delays = make([]time.Duration, 0, count)
defer b.StopTimer()
sort.Slice(lb.delays, func(i, j int) bool { return lb.delays[i] < lb.delays[j] })
delays := lb.delays
delayLen := float64(len(delays))
average, median := time.Duration(, delays[len(delays)/2]
p29, p39, p49, p59, p69 := lb.delays[int(0.99*delayLen)], delays[int(0.999*delayLen)], delays[int(0.9999*delayLen)], delays[int(0.99999*delayLen)], delays[int(0.999999*delayLen)]
if b != nil {
if testing.Short() {
b.ReportMetric(0, "ns/op")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p59), "p99.999-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p69), "p99.9999-ns")
} else {
b.ReportMetric(float64(average.Nanoseconds()), "ns/op")
b.ReportMetric(float64(median), "p50-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p29), "p99-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p39), "p99.9-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p49), "p99.99-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p59), "p99.999-ns")
b.ReportMetric(float64(p69), "p99.9999-ns")
if reportWorstFlag {
b.ReportMetric(float64(lb.worst), "worst")
// Don't report worst case, it is ultra-noisy.
} else {
fmt.Printf("GC latency benchmark, how=%s, fluff=%v\n", lb.howAllocated, lb.doFluff)
fmt.Println("Worst allocation latency:", lb.worst)
fmt.Println("Worst allocation index:", lb.worstIndex)
fmt.Println("Worst allocation occurs at run elapsed time:", lb.worstElapsed)
fmt.Println("Average allocation latency:", average)
fmt.Println("Median allocation latency:", median)
fmt.Println("99% allocation latency:", p29)
fmt.Println("99.9% allocation latency:", p39)
fmt.Println("99.99% allocation latency:", p49)
fmt.Println("99.999% allocation latency:", p59)
fmt.Println("99.9999% allocation latency:", p69)
fmt.Println("Sizeof(circularBuffer) =", unsafe.Sizeof(*c))
fmt.Println("Approximate live memory =", unsafe.Sizeof(*c)+bufferLen*1024)