content/static/doc: add module documentation on module cache

For golang/go#33637

Change-Id: I58300dfe59b5e4e3cb118fd07f5a00419acc07b8
Reviewed-on: https://go-review.googlesource.com/c/website/+/242318
Run-TryBot: Jay Conrod <jayconrod@google.com>
TryBot-Result: Gobot Gobot <gobot@golang.org>
Reviewed-by: Michael Matloob <matloob@golang.org>
diff --git a/content/static/doc/mod.md b/content/static/doc/mod.md
index 2a9d4a0..6ac4691 100644
--- a/content/static/doc/mod.md
+++ b/content/static/doc/mod.md
@@ -2437,6 +2437,139 @@
 <a id="module-cache"></a>
 ## Module cache
 
+The <dfn>module cache</dfn> is the directory where the `go` command stores
+downloaded module files. The module cache is distinct from the build cache,
+which contains compiled packages and other build artifacts.
+
+The default location of the module cache is `$GOPATH/pkg/mod`. To use a
+different location, set the `GOMODCACHE` [environment
+variable](#environment-variables).
+
+The module cache has no maximum size, and the `go` command does not remove its
+contents automatically.
+
+The cache may be shared by multiple Go projects developed on the same machine.
+The `go` command will use the same cache regardless of the location of the
+main module. Multiple instances of the `go` command may safely access the
+same module cache at the same time.
+
+The `go` command creates module source files and directories in the cache with
+read-only permissions to prevent accidental changes to modules after they're
+downloaded. This has the unfortunate side-effect of making the cache difficult
+to delete with commands like `rm -rf`. The cache may instead be deleted with
+[`go clean -modcache`](#go-clean-modcache). Alternatively, when the
+`-modcacherw` flag is used, the `go` command will create new directories with
+read-write permissions. This increases the risk of editors, tests, and other
+programs modifying files in the module cache. The [`go mod
+verify`](#go-mod-verify) command may be used to detect modifications to
+dependencies of the main module. It scans the extracted contents of each
+module dependency and confirms they match the expected hash in `go.sum`.
+
+The table below explains the purpose of most files in the module cache. Some
+transient files (lock files, temporary directories) are omitted. For each path,
+`$module` is a module path, and `$version` is a version. Paths ending with
+slashes (`/`) are directories. Capital letters in module paths and versions are
+escaped using exclamation points (`Azure` is escaped as `!azure`) to avoid
+conflicts on case-insensitive file systems.
+
+<table class="ModTable">
+  <thead>
+    <tr>
+      <th>Path</th>
+      <th>Description</th>
+    </tr>
+  </thead>
+  <tbody>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>$module@$version/</code></td>
+      <td>
+        Directory containing extracted contents of a module <code>.zip</code>
+        file. This serves as a module root directory for a downloaded module. It
+        won't contain contain a <code>go.mod</code> file if the original module
+        didn't have one.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/</code></td>
+      <td>
+        Directory containing files downloaded from module proxies and files
+        derived from <a href="#vcs">version control systems</a>. The layout of
+        this directory follows the
+        <a href="#goproxy-protocol"><code>GOPROXY</code> protocol</a>, so
+        this directory may be used as a proxy when served by an HTTP file
+        server or when referenced with a <code>file://</code> URL.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/$module/@v/list</code></td>
+      <td>
+        List of known versions (see
+        <a href="#goproxy-protocol"><code>GOPROXY</code> protocol</a>). This
+        may change over time, so the <code>go</code> command usually fetches a
+        new copy instead of re-using this file.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/$module/@v/$version.info</code></td>
+      <td>
+        JSON metadata about the version. (see
+        <a href="#goproxy-protocol"><code>GOPROXY</code> protocol</a>). This
+        may change over time, so the <code>go</code> command usually fetches a
+        new copy instead of re-using this file.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/$module/@v/$version.mod</code></td>
+      <td>
+        The <code>go.mod</code> file for this version (see
+        <a href="#goproxy-protocol"><code>GOPROXY</code> protocol</a>). If
+        the original module did not have a <code>go.mod</code> file, this is
+        a synthesized file with no requirements.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/$module/@v/$version.zip</code></td>
+      <td>
+        The zipped contents of the module (see
+        <a href="#goproxy-protocol"><code>GOPROXY</code> protocol</a> and
+        <a href="#zip-files">Module zip files</a>).
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/$module/@v/$version.ziphash</code></td>
+      <td>
+        A cryptographic hash of the files in the <code>.zip</code> file.
+        Note that the <code>.zip</code> file itself is not hashed, so file
+        order, compression, alignment, and metadata don't affect the hash.
+        When using a module, the <code>go</code> command verifies this hash
+        matches the corresponding line in
+        <a href="#go.sum-files"><code>go.sum</code></a>. The
+        <a href="#go-mod-verify"><code>go mod verify</code></a> command checks
+        that the hashes of module <code>.zip</code> files and extracted
+        directories match these files.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/download/sumdb/</code></td>
+      <td>
+        Directory containing files downloaded from a
+        <a href="#checksum-database">checksum database</a> (typically
+        <code>sum.golang.org</code>).
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
+      <td><code>cache/vcs/</code></td>
+      <td>
+        Contains cloned version control repositories for modules fetched
+        directly from their sources. Directory names are hex-encoded hashes
+        derived from the repository type and URL. Repositories are optimized
+        for size on disk. For example, cloned Git repositories are bare and
+        shallow when possible.
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+  </tbody>
+</table>
+
 <a id="authenticating"></a>
 ## Authenticating modules
 
@@ -2703,6 +2836,20 @@
       </td>
     </tr>
     <tr>
+      <td><code>GOMODCACHE</code></td>
+      <td>
+        <p>
+          The directory where the <code>go</code> command will store downloaded
+          modules and related files. See <a href="#module-cache">Module
+          cache</a> for details on the structure of this directory.
+        </p>
+        <p>
+          If <code>GOMODCACHE</code> is not set, it defaults to
+          <code>$GOPATH/pkg/mod</code>.
+        </p>
+      </td>
+    </tr>
+    <tr>
       <td><code>GOINSECURE</code></td>
       <td>
         <p>
diff --git a/content/static/static.go b/content/static/static.go
index f173cff..5746431 100644
--- a/content/static/static.go
+++ b/content/static/static.go
@@ -121,5 +121,5 @@
 
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"<!--{\x0a\x20\x20\"Title\":\x20\"Go\x20Modules\x20Reference\",\x0a\x20\x20\"Subtitle\":\x20\"Version\x20of\x20Feb\x205,\x202019\",\x0a\x20\x20\"Path\":\x20\"/ref/mod\"\x0a}-->\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20change\x20anchors\x20to\x20header\x20id\x20attributes\x20either\x20during\x0amarkdown\x20rendering\x20or\x20as\x20HTML\x20postprocessing\x20step.\x20-->\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20use\x20<dfn>\x20tags\x20where\x20meaningful.\x0aCurrently,\x20*term*\x20is\x20used\x20instead,\x20which\x20renders\x20to\x20<em>term</em>.\x20-->\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"introduction\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Introduction</h2>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"modules-overview\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Modules,\x20packages,\x20and\x20versions</h2>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module\"><em>module</em></a>\x20is\x20a\x20collection\x20of\x20packages\x20that\x20are\x20released,\x0aversioned,\x20and\x20distributed\x20together.\x20A\x20module\x20is\x20identified\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\"><em>module\x0apath</em></a>,\x20which\x20is\x20declared\x20in\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-files\"><code>go.mod</code>\x0afile</a>,\x20together\x20with\x20information\x20about\x20the\x20module's\x0adependencies.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-root-directory\"><em>module\x20root\x20directory</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x0adirectory\x20that\x20contains\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\"><em>main\x0amodule</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20module\x20containing\x20the\x20directory\x20where\x20the\x0a<code>go</code>\x20command\x20is\x20invoked.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-package\"><em>package</em></a>\x20within\x20a\x20module\x20is\x20a\x20collection\x20of\x20source\x20files\x0ain\x20the\x20same\x20directory\x20that\x20are\x20compiled\x20together.\x20A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-package-path\"><em>package\x0apath</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20joined\x20with\x20the\x20subdirectory\x0acontaining\x20the\x20package\x20(relative\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20root).\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x0a<code>&quot;golang.org/x/net&quot;</code>\x20contains\x20a\x20package\x20in\x20the\x20directory\x20<code>&quot;html&quot;</code>.\x20That\x0apackage's\x20path\x20is\x20<code>&quot;golang.org/x/net/html&quot;</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"module-path\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Module\x20paths</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\"><em>module\x20path</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20canonical\x20name\x20for\x20a\x20module,\x0adeclared\x20with\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-module\"><code>module</code>\x20directive</a>\x20in\x20the\x20module's\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20file</a>.\x20A\x20module's\x20path\x20is\x20the\x20prefix\x20for\x20package\x0apaths\x20within\x20the\x20module.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20path\x20should\x20describe\x20both\x20what\x20the\x20module\x20does\x20and\x20where\x20to\x20find\x20it.\x0aTypically,\x20a\x20module\x20path\x20consists\x20of\x20a\x20repository\x20root\x20path,\x20a\x20directory\x20within\x0athe\x20repository\x20(usually\x20empty),\x20and\x20a\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20(only\x20for\x20major\x0aversion\x202\x20or\x20higher).</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<dfn>repository\x20root\x20path</dfn>\x20is\x20the\x20portion\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20that\x0acorresponds\x20to\x20the\x20root\x20directory\x20of\x20the\x20version\x20control\x20repository\x20where\x20the\x0amodule\x20is\x20developed.\x20Most\x20modules\x20are\x20defined\x20in\x20their\x20repository's\x20root\x0adirectory,\x20so\x20this\x20is\x20usually\x20the\x20entire\x20path.\x20For\x20example,\x0a<code>golang.org/x/net</code>\x20is\x20the\x20repository\x20root\x20path\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20of\x20the\x20same\x0aname.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-find\">Finding\x20a\x20repository\x20for\x20a\x20module\x20path</a>\x20for\x20information\x0aon\x20how\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20locates\x20a\x20repository\x20using\x20HTTP\x20requests\x20derived\x0afrom\x20a\x20module\x20path.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20not\x20defined\x20in\x20the\x20repository's\x20root\x20directory,\x20the\x0a<dfn>module\x20subdirectory</dfn>\x20is\x20the\x20part\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20that\x20names\x20the\x0adirectory,\x20not\x20including\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20suffix.\x20This\x20also\x20serves\x20as\x20a\x0aprefix\x20for\x20semantic\x20version\x20tags.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x0a<code>golang.org/x/tools/gopls</code>\x20is\x20in\x20the\x20<code>gopls</code>\x20subdirectory\x20of\x20the\x20repository\x0awith\x20root\x20path\x20<code>golang.org/x/tools</code>,\x20so\x20it\x20has\x20the\x20module\x20subdirectory\x0a<code>gopls</code>.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-version\">Mapping\x20versions\x20to\x20commits</a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-dir\">Module\x0adirectories\x20within\x20a\x20repository</a>.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20released\x20at\x20major\x20version\x202\x20or\x20higher,\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20must\x0aend\x20with\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#major-version-suffixes\"><em>major\x20version\x20suffix</em></a>\x20like\x0a<code>/v2</code>.\x20This\x20may\x20or\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20part\x20of\x20the\x20subdirectory\x20name.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x0amodule\x20with\x20path\x20<code>golang.org/x/repo/sub/v2</code>\x20could\x20be\x20in\x20the\x20<code>/sub</code>\x20or\x0a<code>/sub/v2</code>\x20subdirectory\x20of\x20the\x20repository\x20<code>golang.org/x/repo</code>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20module\x20might\x20be\x20depended\x20on\x20by\x20other\x20modules,\x20these\x20rules\x20must\x20be\x20followed\x0aso\x20that\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20can\x20find\x20and\x20download\x20the\x20module.\x20There\x20are\x20also\x0aseveral\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-ident\">lexical\x20restrictions</a>\x20on\x20characters\x20allowed\x20in\x0amodule\x20paths.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"versions\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Versions</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-version\"><em>version</em></a>\x20identifies\x20an\x20immutable\x20snapshot\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x20which\x0amay\x20be\x20either\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-release-version\">release</a>\x20or\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>.\x20Each\x20version\x20starts\x20with\x20the\x20letter\x0a<code>v</code>,\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20semantic\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html\">Semantic\x20Versioning\x0a2.0.0</a>\x20for\x20details\x20on\x20how\x20versions\x20are\x0aformatted,\x20interpreted,\x20and\x20compared.</p>\x0a<p>To\x20summarize,\x20a\x20semantic\x20version\x20consists\x20of\x20three\x20non-negative\x20integers\x20(the\x0amajor,\x20minor,\x20and\x20patch\x20versions,\x20from\x20left\x20to\x20right)\x20separated\x20by\x20dots.\x20The\x0apatch\x20version\x20may\x20be\x20followed\x20by\x20an\x20optional\x20pre-release\x20string\x20starting\x20with\x20a\x0ahyphen.\x20The\x20pre-release\x20string\x20or\x20patch\x20version\x20may\x20be\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20build\x0ametadata\x20string\x20starting\x20with\x20a\x20plus.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v0.0.0</code>,\x20<code>v1.12.134</code>,\x0a<code>v8.0.5-pre</code>,\x20and\x20<code>v2.0.9+meta</code>\x20are\x20valid\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20part\x20of\x20a\x20version\x20indicates\x20whether\x20the\x20version\x20is\x20stable\x20and\x20whether\x20it\x20is\x0acompatible\x20with\x20previous\x20versions.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version\">major\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20and\x20the\x20minor\x0aand\x20patch\x20versions\x20must\x20be\x20set\x20to\x20zero\x20after\x20a\x20backwards\x20incompatible\x20change\x0ais\x20made\x20to\x20the\x20module's\x20public\x20interface\x20or\x20documented\x20functionality,\x20for\x0aexample,\x20after\x20a\x20package\x20is\x20removed.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-minor-version\">minor\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20and\x20the\x20patch\x0aversion\x20set\x20to\x20zero\x20after\x20a\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20change,\x20for\x20example,\x20after\x20a\x0anew\x20function\x20is\x20added.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-patch-version\">patch\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20after\x20a\x20change\x0athat\x20does\x20not\x20affect\x20the\x20module's\x20public\x20interface,\x20such\x20as\x20a\x20bug\x20fix\x20or\x0aoptimization.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20pre-release\x20suffix\x20indicates\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>.\x20Pre-release\x20versions\x20sort\x20before\x0athe\x20corresponding\x20release\x20versions.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v1.2.3-pre</code>\x20comes\x20before\x0a<code>v1.2.3</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20build\x20metadata\x20suffix\x20is\x20ignored\x20for\x20the\x20purpose\x20of\x20comparing\x20versions.\x0aTags\x20with\x20build\x20metadata\x20are\x20ignored\x20in\x20version\x20control\x20repositories,\x20but\x0abuild\x20metadata\x20is\x20preserved\x20in\x20versions\x20specified\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files.\x20The\x0asuffix\x20<code>+incompatible</code>\x20denotes\x20a\x20version\x20released\x20before\x20migrating\x20to\x20modules\x0aversion\x20major\x20version\x202\x20or\x20later\x20(see\x20<a\x20href=\"#non-module-compat\">Compatibility\x20with\x20non-module\x0arepositories</a>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>A\x20version\x20is\x20considered\x20unstable\x20if\x20its\x20major\x20version\x20is\x200\x20or\x20it\x20has\x20a\x0apre-release\x20suffix.\x20Unstable\x20versions\x20are\x20not\x20subject\x20to\x20compatibility\x0arequirements.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v0.2.0</code>\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x20with\x20<code>v0.1.0</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>v1.5.0-beta</code>\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x20with\x20<code>v1.5.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Go\x20may\x20access\x20modules\x20in\x20version\x20control\x20systems\x20using\x20tags,\x20branches,\x20or\x0arevisions\x20that\x20don't\x20follow\x20these\x20conventions.\x20However,\x20within\x20the\x20main\x20module,\x0athe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20automatically\x20convert\x20revision\x20names\x20that\x20don't\x20follow\x0athis\x20standard\x20into\x20canonical\x20versions.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20also\x20remove\x20build\x0ametadata\x20suffixes\x20(except\x20for\x20<code>+incompatible</code>)\x20as\x20part\x20of\x20this\x20process.\x20This\x20may\x0aresult\x20in\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-pseudo-version\"><em>pseudo-version</em></a>,\x20a\x20pre-release\x20version\x20that\x0aencodes\x20a\x20revision\x20identifier\x20(such\x20as\x20a\x20Git\x20commit\x20hash)\x20and\x20a\x20timestamp\x20from\x20a\x0aversion\x20control\x20system.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20command\x20<code>go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/net@daa7c041</code>\x20will\x20convert\x20the\x20commit\x20hash\x20<code>daa7c041</code>\x20into\x20the\x0apseudo-version\x20<code>v0.0.0-20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>.\x20Canonical\x20versions\x20are\x0arequired\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module,\x20and\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error\x20if\x20a\x0anon-canonical\x20version\x20like\x20<code>master</code>\x20appears\x20in\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"pseudo-versions\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Pseudo-versions</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<dfn>pseudo-version</dfn>\x20is\x20a\x20specially\x20formatted\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-version\">version</a>\x20that\x20encodes\x0ainformation\x20about\x20a\x20specific\x20revision\x20in\x20a\x20version\x20control\x20repository.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20<code>v0.0.0-20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>\x20is\x20a\x20pseudo-version.</p>\x0a<p>Pseudo-versions\x20may\x20refer\x20to\x20revisions\x20for\x20which\x20no\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-semantic-version-tag\">semantic\x20version\x0atags</a>\x20are\x20available.\x20They\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20test\x0acommits\x20before\x20creating\x20version\x20tags,\x20for\x20example,\x20on\x20a\x20development\x20branch.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20pseudo-version\x20has\x20three\x20parts:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>A\x20base\x20version\x20prefix\x20(<code>vX.0.0</code>\x20or\x20<code>vX.Y.Z-0</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20either\x20derived\x20from\x20a\x0asemantic\x20version\x20tag\x20that\x20precedes\x20the\x20revision\x20or\x20<code>vX.0.0</code>\x20if\x20there\x20is\x20no\x0asuch\x20tag.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20timestamp\x20(<code>yymmddhhmmss</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20the\x20UTC\x20time\x20the\x20revision\x20was\x20created.\x0aIn\x20Git,\x20this\x20is\x20the\x20commit\x20time,\x20not\x20the\x20author\x20time.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20revision\x20identifier\x20(<code>abcdefabcdef</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20a\x2012-character\x20prefix\x20of\x20the\x0acommit\x20hash,\x20or\x20in\x20Subversion,\x20a\x20zero-padded\x20revision\x20number.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Each\x20pseudo-version\x20may\x20be\x20in\x20one\x20of\x20three\x20forms,\x20depending\x20on\x20the\x20base\x20version.\x0aThese\x20forms\x20ensure\x20that\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20compares\x20higher\x20than\x20its\x20base\x20version,\x0abut\x20lower\x20than\x20the\x20next\x20tagged\x20version.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><code>vX.0.0-yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20there\x20is\x20no\x20known\x20base\x0aversion.\x20As\x20with\x20all\x20versions,\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20<code>X</code>\x20must\x20match\x20the\x20module's\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version-suffix\">major\x20version\x20suffix</a>.</li>\x0a<li><code>vX.Y.Z-pre.0.yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0aa\x20pre-release\x20version\x20like\x20<code>vX.Y.Z-pre</code>.</li>\x0a<li><code>vX.Y.(Z+1)-0.yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0aa\x20release\x20version\x20like\x20<code>vX.Y.Z</code>.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0a<code>v1.2.3</code>,\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20might\x20be\x20<code>v1.2.4-0.20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>More\x20than\x20one\x20pseudo-version\x20may\x20refer\x20to\x20the\x20same\x20commit\x20by\x20using\x20different\x0abase\x20versions.\x20This\x20happens\x20naturally\x20when\x20a\x20lower\x20version\x20is\x20tagged\x20after\x20a\x0apseudo-version\x20is\x20written.</p>\x0a<p>These\x20forms\x20give\x20pseudo-versions\x20two\x20useful\x20properties:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>Pseudo-versions\x20with\x20known\x20base\x20versions\x20sort\x20higher\x20than\x20those\x20versions\x20but\x0alower\x20than\x20other\x20pre-release\x20for\x20later\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>Pseudo-versions\x20with\x20the\x20same\x20base\x20version\x20prefix\x20sort\x20chronologically.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20performs\x20several\x20checks\x20to\x20ensure\x20that\x20module\x20authors\x20have\x0acontrol\x20over\x20how\x20pseudo-versions\x20are\x20compared\x20with\x20other\x20versions\x20and\x20that\x0apseudo-versions\x20refer\x20to\x20revisions\x20that\x20are\x20actually\x20part\x20of\x20a\x20module's\x0acommit\x20history.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>If\x20a\x20base\x20version\x20is\x20specified,\x20there\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20corresponding\x20semantic\x20version\x0atag\x20that\x20is\x20an\x20ancestor\x20of\x20the\x20revision\x20described\x20by\x20the\x20pseudo-version.\x20This\x0aprevents\x20developers\x20from\x20bypassing\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20using\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20that\x0acompares\x20higher\x20than\x20all\x20tagged\x20versions\x20like\x0a<code>v1.999.999-99999999999999-daa7c04131f5</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20timestamp\x20must\x20match\x20the\x20revision's\x20timestamp.\x20This\x20prevents\x20attackers\x0afrom\x20flooding\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x20proxies</a>\x20with\x20an\x20unbounded\x20number\x0aof\x20otherwise\x20identical\x20pseudo-versions.\x20This\x20also\x20prevents\x20module\x20consumers\x0afrom\x20changing\x20the\x20relative\x20ordering\x20of\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20revision\x20must\x20be\x20an\x20ancestor\x20of\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20repository's\x20branches\x20or\x0atags.\x20This\x20prevents\x20attackers\x20from\x20referring\x20to\x20unapproved\x20changes\x20or\x20pull\x0arequests.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Pseudo-versions\x20never\x20need\x20to\x20be\x20typed\x20by\x20hand.\x20Many\x20commands\x20accept\x0aa\x20commit\x20hash\x20or\x20a\x20branch\x20name\x20and\x20will\x20translate\x20it\x20into\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x0a(or\x20tagged\x20version\x20if\x20available)\x20automatically.\x20For\x20example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20-d\x20example.com/mod@master\x0ago\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/mod@abcd1234\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"major-version-suffixes\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Major\x20version\x20suffixes</h3>\x0a<p>Starting\x20with\x20major\x20version\x202,\x20module\x20paths\x20must\x20have\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version-suffix\"><em>major\x20version\x0asuffix</em></a>\x20like\x20<code>/v2</code>\x20that\x20matches\x20the\x20major\x0aversion.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20the\x20path\x20<code>example.com/mod</code>\x20at\x20<code>v1.0.0</code>,\x20it\x0amust\x20have\x20the\x20path\x20<code>example.com/mod/v2</code>\x20at\x20version\x20<code>v2.0.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20implement\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-import\"><em>import\x20compatibility\x0arule</em></a>:</p>\x0a<blockquote>\x0a<p>If\x20an\x20old\x20package\x20and\x20a\x20new\x20package\x20have\x20the\x20same\x20import\x20path,\x0athe\x20new\x20package\x20must\x20be\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20with\x20the\x20old\x20package.</p>\x0a</blockquote>\x0a<p>By\x20definition,\x20packages\x20in\x20a\x20new\x20major\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20are\x20not\x20backwards\x0acompatible\x20with\x20the\x20corresponding\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20previous\x20major\x20version.\x0aConsequently,\x20starting\x20with\x20<code>v2</code>,\x20packages\x20need\x20new\x20import\x20paths.\x20This\x20is\x0aaccomplished\x20by\x20adding\x20a\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20path.\x20Since\x20the\x0amodule\x20path\x20is\x20a\x20prefix\x20of\x20the\x20import\x20path\x20for\x20each\x20package\x20within\x20the\x20module,\x0aadding\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20provides\x20a\x20distinct\x20import\x0apath\x20for\x20each\x20incompatible\x20version.</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20are\x20not\x20allowed\x20at\x20major\x20versions\x20<code>v0</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1</code>.\x20There\x20is\x0ano\x20need\x20to\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20between\x20<code>v0</code>\x20and\x20<code>v1</code>\x20because\x20<code>v0</code>\x20versions\x0aare\x20unstable\x20and\x20have\x20no\x20compatibility\x20guarantee.\x20Additionally,\x20for\x20most\x0amodules,\x20<code>v1</code>\x20is\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20with\x20the\x20last\x20<code>v0</code>\x20version;\x20a\x20<code>v1</code>\x20version\x0aacts\x20as\x20a\x20commitment\x20to\x20compatibility,\x20rather\x20than\x20an\x20indication\x20of\x0aincompatible\x20changes\x20compared\x20with\x20<code>v0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>As\x20a\x20special\x20case,\x20modules\x20paths\x20starting\x20with\x20<code>gopkg.in/</code>\x20must\x20always\x20have\x20a\x0amajor\x20version\x20suffix,\x20even\x20at\x20<code>v0</code>\x20and\x20<code>v1</code>.\x20The\x20suffix\x20must\x20start\x20with\x20a\x20dot\x0arather\x20than\x20a\x20slash\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>gopkg.in/yaml.v2</code>).</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20let\x20multiple\x20major\x20versions\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20coexist\x20in\x20the\x0asame\x20build.\x20This\x20may\x20be\x20necessary\x20due\x20to\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-import#dependency_story\">diamond\x20dependency\x0aproblem</a>.\x20Ordinarily,\x20if\x0aa\x20module\x20is\x20required\x20at\x20two\x20different\x20versions\x20by\x20transitive\x20dependencies,\x20the\x0ahigher\x20version\x20will\x20be\x20used.\x20However,\x20if\x20the\x20two\x20versions\x20are\x20incompatible,\x0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s.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Versions\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20may\x20be\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-canonical-version\">canonical</a>\x20or\x0anon-canonical.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20canonical\x20version\x20starts\x20with\x20the\x20letter\x20<code>v</code>,\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20semantic\x20version\x0afollowing\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html\">Semantic\x20Versioning\x202.0.0</a>\x0aspecification.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#versions\">Versions</a>\x20for\x20more\x20information.</p>\x0a<p>Most\x20other\x20identifiers\x20and\x20strings\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20as\x20non-canonical\x20versions,\x20though\x0athere\x20are\x20some\x20restrictions\x20to\x20avoid\x20problems\x20with\x20file\x20systems,\x20repositories,\x0aand\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x20proxies</a>.\x20Non-canonical\x20versions\x20are\x20only\x0aallowed\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20attempt\x20to\x0areplace\x20each\x20non-canonical\x20version\x20with\x20an\x20equivalent\x20canonical\x20version\x20when\x20it\x0aautomatically\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-updates\">updates</a>\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p>In\x20places\x20where\x20a\x20module\x20path\x20is\x20associated\x20with\x20a\x20verison\x20(as\x20in\x20<code>require</code>,\x0a<code>replace</code>,\x20and\x20<code>exclude</code>\x20directives),\x20the\x20final\x20path\x20element\x20must\x20be\x20consistent\x0awith\x20the\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#major-version-suffixes\">Major\x20version\x20suffixes</a>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-grammar\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Grammar</h3>\x0a<p><code>go.mod</code>\x20syntax\x20is\x20specified\x20below\x20using\x20Extended\x20Backus-Naur\x20Form\x20(EBNF).\x0aSee\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"/ref/spec#Notation\">Notation\x20section\x20in\x20the\x20Go\x20Language\x20Specificiation</a>\x0afor\x20details\x20on\x20EBNF\x20syntax.</p>\x0a<pre><code>GoMod\x20=\x20{\x20Directive\x20}\x20.\x0aDirective\x20=\x20ModuleDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20GoDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20RequireDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20ExcludeDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20ReplaceDirective\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Newlines,\x20identifiers,\x20and\x20strings\x20are\x20denoted\x20with\x20<code>newline</code>,\x20<code>ident</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>string</code>,\x20respectively.</p>\x0a<p>Module\x20paths\x20and\x20versions\x20are\x20denoted\x20with\x20<code>ModulePath</code>\x20and\x20<code>Version</code>.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ModulePath\x20=\x20ident\x20|\x20string\x20.\x20/*\x20see\x20restrictions\x20above\x20*/\x0aVersion\x20=\x20ident\x20|\x20string\x20.\x20\x20\x20\x20/*\x20see\x20restrictions\x20above\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-module\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>module</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive\x20defines\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\">path</a>.\x20A\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20must\x20contain\x20exactly\x20one\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ModuleDirective\x20=\x20&quot;module&quot;\x20(\x20ModulePath\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20ModulePath\x20newline\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>module\x20golang.org/x/net\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-go\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>go</code>\x20directive\x20sets\x20the\x20expected\x20language\x20version\x20for\x20the\x20module.\x20The\x0aversion\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20valid\x20Go\x20release\x20version:\x20a\x20positive\x20integer\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20dot\x0aand\x20a\x20non-negative\x20integer\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>1.9</code>,\x20<code>1.14</code>).</p>\x0a<p>The\x20language\x20version\x20determines\x20which\x20language\x20features\x20are\x20available\x20when\x0acompiling\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20module.\x20Language\x20features\x20present\x20in\x20that\x20version\x0awill\x20be\x20available\x20for\x20use.\x20Language\x20features\x20removed\x20in\x20earlier\x20versions,\x0aor\x20added\x20in\x20later\x20versions,\x20will\x20not\x20be\x20available.\x20The\x20language\x20version\x20does\x20not\x0aaffect\x20build\x20tags,\x20which\x20are\x20determined\x20by\x20the\x20Go\x20release\x20being\x20used.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20language\x20version\x20is\x20also\x20used\x20to\x20enable\x20features\x20in\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20automatic\x20<a\x20href=\"#vendoring\">vendoring</a>\x20may\x20be\x20enabled\x20with\x20a\x20<code>go</code>\x20version\x20of\x0a<code>1.14</code>\x20or\x20higher.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20may\x20contain\x20at\x20most\x20one\x20<code>go</code>\x20directive.\x20Most\x20commands\x20will\x20add\x20a\x0a<code>go</code>\x20directive\x20with\x20the\x20current\x20Go\x20version\x20if\x20one\x20is\x20not\x20present.</p>\x0a<pre><code>GoDirective\x20=\x20&quot;go&quot;\x20GoVersion\x20newline\x20.\x0aGoVersion\x20=\x20string\x20|\x20ident\x20.\x20\x20/*\x20valid\x20release\x20version;\x20see\x20above\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x201.14\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-require\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>require</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20declares\x20a\x20minimum\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20given\x20module\x0adependency.\x20For\x20each\x20required\x20module\x20version,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20loads\x20the\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20for\x20that\x20version\x20and\x20incorporates\x20the\x20requirements\x20from\x20that\x0afile.\x20Once\x20all\x20requirements\x20have\x20been\x20loaded,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20resolves\x20them\x0ausing\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</a>\x20to\x20produce\x0athe\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20automatically\x20adds\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments\x20for\x20some\x0arequirements.\x20An\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comment\x20indicates\x20that\x20no\x20package\x20from\x20the\x0arequired\x20module\x20is\x20directly\x20imported\x20by\x20any\x20package\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x0aThe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20adds\x20an\x20indirect\x20requirement\x20when\x20the\x20selected\x20version\x20of\x20a\x0amodule\x20is\x20higher\x20than\x20what\x20is\x20already\x20implied\x20(transitively)\x20by\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20other\x20dependencies.\x20That\x20may\x20occur\x20because\x20of\x20an\x20explicit\x20upgrade\x0a(<code>go\x20get\x20-u</code>),\x20removal\x20of\x20some\x20other\x20dependency\x20that\x20previously\x20imposed\x20the\x0arequirement\x20(<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>),\x20or\x20a\x20dependency\x20that\x20imports\x20a\x20package\x20without\x0aa\x20corresponding\x20requirement\x20in\x20its\x20own\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20(such\x20as\x20a\x20dependency\x0athat\x20lacks\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20altogether).</p>\x0a<pre><code>RequireDirective\x20=\x20&quot;require&quot;\x20(\x20RequireSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20RequireSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20)\x20.\x0aRequireSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>require\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x0arequire\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/crypto\x20v1.4.5\x20//\x20indirect\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/text\x20v1.6.7\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-exclude\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>exclude</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>An\x20<code>exclude</code>\x20directive\x20prevents\x20a\x20module\x20version\x20from\x20being\x20loaded\x20by\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x0acommand.\x20If\x20an\x20excluded\x20version\x20is\x20referenced\x20by\x20a\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20in\x20a\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20list\x20available\x20versions\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20(as\x0ashown\x20with\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-versions</code>)\x20and\x20will\x20load\x20the\x20next\x20higher\x20non-excluded\x0aversion\x20instead.\x20Both\x20release\x20and\x20pre-release\x20versions\x20are\x20considered\x20for\x20this\x0apurpose,\x20but\x20pseudo-versions\x20are\x20not.\x20If\x20there\x20are\x20no\x20higher\x20versions,\x0athe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x20Note\x20that\x20this\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/issue/36465\">may\x0achange</a>\x20in\x20Go\x201.15.</p>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(golang.org/issue/36465):\x20update\x20after\x20change\x20-->\x0a<p><code>exclude</code>\x20directives\x20only\x20apply\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20and\x20are\x0aignored\x20in\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20for\x20details.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ExcludeDirective\x20=\x20&quot;exclude&quot;\x20(\x20ExcludeSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20ExcludeSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20)\x20.\x0aExcludeSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>exclude\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x0aexclude\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/crypto\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/text\x20v1.6.7\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-replace\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>replace</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>replace</code>\x20directive\x20replaces\x20the\x20contents\x20of\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x0aor\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x20with\x20contents\x20found\x20elsewhere.\x20The\x20replacement\x0amay\x20be\x20specified\x20with\x20either\x20another\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version,\x20or\x20a\x0aplatform-specific\x20file\x20path.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20present\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x20of\x20the\x20arrow\x20(<code>=&gt;</code>),\x20only\x20that\x20specific\x0aversion\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20replaced;\x20other\x20versions\x20will\x20be\x20accessed\x20normally.\x0aIf\x20the\x20left\x20version\x20is\x20omitted,\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20are\x20replaced.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20path\x20on\x20the\x20right\x20side\x20of\x20the\x20arrow\x20is\x20an\x20absolute\x20or\x20relative\x20path\x0a(beginning\x20with\x20<code>./</code>\x20or\x20<code>../</code>),\x20it\x20is\x20interpreted\x20as\x20the\x20local\x20file\x20path\x20to\x20the\x0areplacement\x20module\x20root\x20directory,\x20which\x20must\x20contain\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x0areplacement\x20version\x20must\x20be\x20omitted\x20in\x20this\x20case.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20path\x20on\x20the\x20right\x20side\x20is\x20not\x20a\x20local\x20path,\x20it\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20valid\x20module\x0apath.\x20In\x20this\x20case,\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20required.\x20The\x20same\x20module\x20version\x20must\x20not\x0aalso\x20appear\x20in\x20the\x20build\x20list.</p>\x0a<p>Regardless\x20of\x20whether\x20a\x20replacement\x20is\x20specified\x20with\x20a\x20local\x20path\x20or\x20module\x0apath,\x20if\x20the\x20replacement\x20module\x20has\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20its\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive\x0amust\x20match\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20it\x20replaces.</p>\x0a<p><code>replace</code>\x20directives\x20only\x20apply\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x0aand\x20are\x20ignored\x20in\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20for\x20details.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ReplaceDirective\x20=\x20&quot;replace&quot;\x20(\x20ReplaceSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20ReplaceSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20)\x20.\x0aReplaceSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20[\x20Version\x20]\x20&quot;=&gt;&quot;\x20FilePath\x20newline\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20|\x20ModulePath\x20[\x20Version\x20]\x20&quot;=&gt;&quot;\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0aFilePath\x20=\x20/*\x20platform-specific\x20relative\x20or\x20absolute\x20file\x20path\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>replace\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x0areplace\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20./fork/net\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20=&gt;\x20./fork/net\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-updates\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Automatic\x20updates</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20automatically\x20updates\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20when\x20it\x20uses\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20if\x0asome\x20information\x20is\x20missing\x20or\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20doesn't\x20accurately\x20reflect\x20reality.\x20\x20For\x0aexample,\x20consider\x20this\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file:</p>\x0a<pre><code>module\x20example.com/M\x0a\x0arequire\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/A\x20v1\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/B\x20v1.0.0\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/C\x20v1.0.0\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/D\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/E\x20dev\x0a)\x0a\x0aexclude\x20example.com/D\x20v1.2.3\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20rewrites\x20non-canonical\x20version\x20identifiers\x20to\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-canonical-version\">canonical</a>\x20semver\x20form,\x20so\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20<code>v1</code>\x0abecomes\x20<code>v1.0.0</code>,\x20and\x20<code>example.com/E</code>'s\x20<code>dev</code>\x20becomes\x20the\x20pseudo-version\x20for\x20the\x0alatest\x20commit\x20on\x20the\x20<code>dev</code>\x20branch,\x20perhaps\x20<code>v0.0.0-20180523231146-b3f5c0f6e5f1</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20modifies\x20requirements\x20to\x20respect\x20exclusions,\x20so\x20the\x20requirement\x20on\x0athe\x20excluded\x20<code>example.com/D\x20v1.2.3</code>\x20is\x20updated\x20to\x20use\x20the\x20next\x20available\x20version\x0aof\x20<code>example.com/D</code>,\x20perhaps\x20<code>v1.2.4</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1.3.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20removes\x20redundant\x20or\x20misleading\x20requirements.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x0a<code>example.com/A\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20itself\x20requires\x20<code>example.com/B\x20v1.2.0</code>\x20and\x20<code>example.com/C\x20v1.0.0</code>,\x20then\x20<code>go.mod</code>'s\x20requirement\x20of\x20<code>example.com/B\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20is\x20misleading\x0a(superseded\x20by\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20need\x20for\x20<code>v1.2.0</code>),\x20and\x20its\x20requirement\x20of\x0a<code>example.com/C\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20is\x20redundant\x20(implied\x20by\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20need\x20for\x20the\x0asame\x20version),\x20so\x20both\x20will\x20be\x20removed.\x20If\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20contains\x20packages\x0athat\x20directly\x20import\x20packages\x20from\x20<code>example.com/B</code>\x20or\x20<code>example.com/C</code>,\x20then\x20the\x0arequirements\x20will\x20be\x20kept\x20but\x20updated\x20to\x20the\x20actual\x20versions\x20being\x20used.</p>\x0a<p>Finally,\x20the\x20update\x20reformats\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20a\x20canonical\x20formatting,\x20so\x0athat\x20future\x20mechanical\x20changes\x20will\x20result\x20in\x20minimal\x20diffs.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x0awill\x20not\x20update\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20if\x20only\x20formatting\x20changes\x20are\x20needed.</p>\x0a<p>Because\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20defines\x20the\x20meaning\x20of\x20import\x20statements,\x20any\x20commands\x0athat\x20load\x20packages\x20also\x20use\x20and\x20therefore\x20update\x20<code>go.mod</code>,\x20including\x20<code>go\x20build</code>,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>,\x20<code>go\x20install</code>,\x20<code>go\x20list</code>,\x20<code>go\x20test</code>,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20graph</code>,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20why</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-mod=readonly</code>\x20flag\x20prevents\x20commands\x20from\x20automatically\x20updating\x0a<code>go.mod</code>.\x20However,\x20if\x20a\x20command\x20needs\x20to\x20perform\x20an\x20action\x20that\x20would\x0aupdate\x20to\x20<code>go.mod</code>,\x20it\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x0a<code>go\x20build</code>\x20is\x20asked\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20package\x20not\x20provided\x20by\x20any\x20module\x20in\x20the\x20build\x0alist,\x20<code>go\x20build</code>\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error\x20instead\x20of\x20looking\x20up\x20the\x20module\x20and\x0aupdating\x20requirements\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"minimal-version-selection\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</h2>\x0a<p>Go\x20uses\x20an\x20algorithm\x20called\x20<dfn>Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</dfn>\x20to\x20select\x0aa\x20set\x20of\x20module\x20versions\x20to\x20use\x20when\x20building\x20packages.\x20MVS\x20is\x20described\x20in\x0adetail\x20in\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-mvs\">Minimal\x20Version\x20Selection</a>\x20by\x0aRuss\x20Cox.</p>\x0a<p>Conceptually,\x20MVS\x20operates\x20on\x20a\x20directed\x20graph\x20of\x20modules,\x20specified\x20with\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20files</a>.\x20Each\x20vertex\x20in\x20the\x20graph\x20represents\x20a\x0amodule\x20version.\x20Each\x20edge\x20represents\x20a\x20minimum\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20dependency,\x0aspecified\x20using\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-require\"><code>require</code></a>\x0adirective.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\"><code>replace</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-exclude\"><code>exclude</code></a>\x0adirectives\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20modify\x20the\x20graph.</p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20produces\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>\x20as\x20output,\x20the\x20list\x20of\x20module\x0aversions\x20used\x20for\x20a\x20build.</p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20starts\x20at\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20(a\x20special\x20vertex\x20in\x20the\x20graph\x20that\x20has\x20no\x0aversion)\x20and\x20traverses\x20the\x20graph,\x20tracking\x20the\x20highest\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20each\x0amodule.\x20At\x20the\x20end\x20of\x20the\x20traversal,\x20the\x20highest\x20required\x20versions\x20comprise\x20the\x0abuild\x20list:\x20they\x20are\x20the\x20minimum\x20versions\x20that\x20satisfy\x20all\x20requirements.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20build\x20list\x20may\x20be\x20inspected\x20with\x20the\x20command\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>.\x20Unlike\x20other\x20dependency\x20management\x20systems,\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20is\x0anot\x20saved\x20in\x20a\x20&quot;lock&quot;\x20file.\x20MVS\x20is\x20deterministic,\x20and\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20doesn't\x0achange\x20when\x20new\x20versions\x20of\x20dependencies\x20are\x20released,\x20so\x20MVS\x20is\x20used\x20to\x20compute\x0ait\x20at\x20the\x20beginning\x20of\x20every\x20module-aware\x20command.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20in\x20the\x20diagram\x20below.\x20The\x20main\x20module\x20requires\x20module\x20A\x0aat\x20version\x201.2\x20or\x20higher\x20and\x20module\x20B\x20at\x20version\x201.2\x20or\x20higher.\x20A\x201.2\x20and\x20B\x201.2\x0arequire\x20C\x201.3\x20and\x20C\x201.4,\x20respectively.\x20C\x201.3\x20and\x20C\x201.4\x20both\x20require\x20D\x201.2.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/buildlist.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20visited\x20versions\x20highlighted\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20build\x20list\x20graph\"></p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20visits\x20and\x20loads\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20for\x20each\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x0ahighlighted\x20in\x20blue.\x20At\x20the\x20end\x20of\x20the\x20graph\x20traversal,\x20MVS\x20returns\x20a\x20build\x20list\x0acontaining\x20the\x20bolded\x20versions:\x20A\x201.2,\x20B\x201.2,\x20C\x201.4,\x20and\x20D\x201.2.\x20Note\x20that\x20higher\x0aversions\x20of\x20B\x20and\x20D\x20are\x20available\x20but\x20MVS\x20does\x20not\x20select\x20them,\x20since\x20nothing\x0arequires\x20them.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-replace\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Replacement</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20content\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20(including\x20its\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file)\x20may\x20be\x20replaced\x20using\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\"><code>replace</code>\x20directive</a>\x20in\x20the\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x0aA\x20<code>replace</code>\x20directive\x20may\x20apply\x20to\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20or\x20to\x20all\x0aversions\x20of\x20a\x20module.</p>\x0a<p>Replacements\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20graph,\x20since\x20a\x20replacement\x20module\x20may\x20have\x0adifferent\x20dependencies\x20than\x20replaced\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below,\x20where\x20C\x201.4\x20has\x20been\x20replaced\x20with\x20R.\x20R\x20depends\x20on\x20D\x0a1.3\x20instead\x20of\x20D\x201.2,\x20so\x20MVS\x20returns\x20a\x20build\x20list\x20containing\x20A\x201.2,\x20B\x201.2,\x20C\x201.4\x0a(replaced\x20with\x20R),\x20and\x20D\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/replace.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20a\x20replacement\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20replacment\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-exclude\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Exclusion</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20excluded\x20at\x20specific\x20versions\x20using\x20an\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-exclude\"><code>exclude</code>\x0adirective</a>\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p>Exclusions\x20also\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20When\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20excluded,\x20it\x20is\x0aremoved\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph,\x20and\x20requirements\x20on\x20it\x20are\x20redirected\x20to\x20the\x0anext\x20higher\x20version.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20C\x201.3\x20has\x20been\x20excluded.\x20MVS\x20will\x20act\x20as\x20if\x20A\x201.2\x0arequired\x20C\x201.4\x20(the\x20next\x20higher\x20version)\x20instead\x20of\x20C\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/exclude.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20an\x20exclusion\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20exclude\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-upgrade\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Upgrades</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20command\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20upgrade\x20a\x20set\x20of\x20modules.\x20To\x0aperform\x20an\x20upgrade,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20changes\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20before\x20running\x20MVS\x0aby\x20adding\x20edges\x20from\x20visited\x20versions\x20to\x20upgraded\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20Module\x20B\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20from\x201.2\x20to\x201.3,\x20C\x20may\x20be\x0aupgraded\x20from\x201.3\x20to\x201.4,\x20and\x20D\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20from\x201.2\x20to\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/upgrade.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20upgrades\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20upgrade\"></p>\x0a<p>Upgrades\x20(and\x20downgrades)\x20may\x20add\x20or\x20remove\x20indirect\x20dependencies.\x20In\x20this\x20case,\x0aE\x201.1\x20and\x20F\x201.1\x20appear\x20in\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20after\x20the\x20upgrade,\x20since\x20E\x201.1\x20is\x0arequired\x20by\x20B\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p>To\x20preserve\x20upgrades,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20updates\x20the\x20requirements\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20\x20It\x0awill\x20change\x20the\x20requirement\x20on\x20B\x20to\x20version\x201.3.\x20It\x20will\x20also\x20add\x20requirements\x0aon\x20C\x201.4\x20and\x20D\x201.3\x20with\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments,\x20since\x20those\x20versions\x20would\x20not\x0abe\x20selected\x20otherwise.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-downgrade\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Downgrade</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20command\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20downgrade\x20a\x20set\x20of\x0amodules.\x20To\x20perform\x20a\x20downgrade,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20changes\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20by\x0aremoving\x20versions\x20above\x20the\x20downgraded\x20versions.\x20It\x20also\x20removes\x20versions\x20of\x0aother\x20modules\x20that\x20depend\x20on\x20removed\x20versions,\x20since\x20they\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x0awith\x20the\x20downgraded\x20versions\x20of\x20their\x20dependencies.\x20If\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20requires\x0aa\x20module\x20version\x20removed\x20by\x20downgrading,\x20the\x20requirement\x20is\x20changed\x20to\x20a\x0aprevious\x20version\x20that\x20has\x20not\x20been\x20removed.\x20If\x20no\x20previous\x20version\x20is\x20available,\x0athe\x20requirement\x20is\x20dropped.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20Suppose\x20that\x20a\x20problem\x20was\x20found\x20with\x20C\x201.4,\x20so\x20we\x0adowngrade\x20to\x20C\x201.3.\x20C\x201.4\x20is\x20removed\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20B\x201.2\x20is\x20also\x0aremoved,\x20since\x20it\x20requires\x20C\x201.4\x20or\x20higher.\x20The\x20main\x20module's\x20requirement\x20on\x20B\x0ais\x20changed\x20to\x201.1.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/downgrade.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20downgrade\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20downgrade\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20can\x20also\x20remove\x20dependencies\x20entirely,\x20using\x20an\x20<code>@none</code>\x0asuffix\x20after\x20an\x20argument.\x20This\x20works\x20similarly\x20to\x20a\x20downgrade.\x20All\x20versions\x0aof\x20the\x20named\x20module\x20are\x20removed\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"non-module-compat\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Compatibility\x20with\x20non-module\x20repositories</h2>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x0a*\x20Synthesized\x20go.mod\x20file\x20in\x20root\x20directory.\x0a*\x20+incompatible\x0a*\x20Minimal\x20module\x20compatibility.\x0a-->\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mod-commands\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Module-aware\x20commands</h2>\x0a<p>Most\x20<code>go</code>\x20commands\x20may\x20run\x20in\x20<em>Module-aware\x20mode</em>\x20or\x20<em><code>GOPATH</code>\x20mode</em>.\x20In\x0amodule-aware\x20mode,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20uses\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20to\x20find\x20versioned\x0adependencies,\x20and\x20it\x20typically\x20loads\x20packages\x20out\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x0acache</a>,\x20downloading\x20modules\x20if\x20they\x20are\x20missing.\x20In\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x0amode,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20ignores\x20modules;\x20it\x20looks\x20in\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directories\x20and\x20in\x0a<code>GOPATH</code>\x20to\x20find\x20dependencies.</p>\x0a<p>Module-aware\x20mode\x20is\x20active\x20by\x20default\x20whenever\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20found\x20in\x20the\x0acurrent\x20directory\x20or\x20in\x20any\x20parent\x20directory.\x20For\x20more\x20fine-grained\x20control,\x20the\x0a<code>GO111MODULE</code>\x20environment\x20variable\x20may\x20be\x20set\x20to\x20one\x20of\x20three\x20values:\x20<code>on</code>,\x0a<code>off</code>,\x20or\x20<code>auto</code>.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=off</code>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20ignores\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20and\x20runs\x20in\x0a<code>GOPATH</code>\x20mode.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=on</code>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20runs\x20in\x20module-aware\x20mode,\x20even\x20when\x0ano\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20present.\x20Not\x20all\x20commands\x20work\x20without\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file:\x0asee\x20<a\x20href=\"#commands-outside\">Module\x20commands\x20outside\x20a\x20module</a>.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=auto</code>\x20or\x20is\x20unset,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20runs\x20in\x20module-aware\x0amode\x20if\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20present\x20in\x20the\x20current\x20directory\x20or\x20any\x20parent\x0adirectory\x20(the\x20default\x20behavior).</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>In\x20module-aware\x20mode,\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x20no\x20longer\x20defines\x20the\x20meaning\x20of\x20imports\x20during\x20a\x0abuild,\x20but\x20it\x20still\x20stores\x20downloaded\x20dependencies\x20(in\x20<code>GOPATH/pkg/mod</code>;\x20see\x0a<a\x20href=\"#module-cache\">Module\x20cache</a>)\x20and\x20installed\x20commands\x20(in\x20<code>GOPATH/bin</code>,\x20unless\x0a<code>GOBIN</code>\x20is\x20set).</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"build-commands\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Build\x20commands</h3>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"vendoring\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Vendoring</h3>\x0a<p>When\x20using\x20modules,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20typically\x20satisfies\x20dependencies\x20by\x0adownloading\x20modules\x20from\x20their\x20sources\x20into\x20the\x20module\x20cache,\x20then\x20loading\x0apackages\x20from\x20those\x20downloaded\x20copies.\x20<em>Vendoring</em>\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20allow\x0ainteroperation\x20with\x20older\x20versions\x20of\x20Go,\x20or\x20to\x20ensure\x20that\x20all\x20files\x20used\x20for\x20a\x0abuild\x20are\x20stored\x20in\x20a\x20single\x20file\x20tree.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20command\x20constructs\x20a\x20directory\x20named\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule's</a>\x20root\x20directory\x20containing\x20copies\x20of\x20all\x20packages\x0aneeded\x20to\x20build\x20and\x20test\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20Packages\x20that\x20are\x20only\x0aimported\x20by\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20are\x20not\x20included.\x20As\x20with\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20and\x20other\x20module\x20commands,\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-constraint\">build\x0aconstraints</a>\x20except\x20for\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20are\x20not\x20considered\x20when\x0aconstructing\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20also\x20creates\x20the\x20file\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20that\x20contains\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20vendored\x20packages\x20and\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20they\x20were\x20copied\x20from.\x20When\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20this\x20manifest\x20is\x20used\x20as\x20a\x20source\x20of\x20module\x20version\x0ainformation,\x20as\x20reported\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-version-m\"><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></a>.\x20When\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20reads\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>,\x20it\x20checks\x0athat\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20are\x20consistent\x20with\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20If\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20has\x20changed\x0asince\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20was\x20generated,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20should\x20be\x20run\x20again\x20to\x20update\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20is\x20present\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20root\x20directory,\x20it\x0awill\x20be\x20used\x20automatically\x20if\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-go\"><code>go</code>\x20version</a>\x20in\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20file</a>\x20is\x20<code>1.14</code>\x20or\x20higher.\x20To\x20explicitly\x0aenable\x20vendoring,\x20invoke\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20with\x20the\x20flag\x20<code>-mod=vendor</code>.\x20To\x0adisable\x20vendoring,\x20use\x20the\x20flag\x20<code>-mod=mod</code>.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20<a\x20href=\"#build-commands\">build\x20commands</a>\x20like\x20<code>go\x20build</code>\x20and\x0a<code>go\x20test</code>\x20load\x20packages\x20from\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20instead\x20of\x20accessing\x20the\x0anetwork\x20or\x20the\x20local\x20module\x20cache.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20command\x20only\x0aprints\x20information\x20about\x20modules\x20listed\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20<code>go\x20mod</code>\x20commands\x20such\x20as\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-download\"><code>go\x20mod\x20download</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20do\x20not\x0awork\x20differently\x20when\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled\x20and\x20will\x20still\x20download\x20modules\x20and\x0aaccess\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20also\x20does\x20not\x20work\x20differently\x20when\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled.</p>\x0a<p>Unlike\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/s/go15vendor\">vendoring\x20in\x20<code>GOPATH</code></a>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x0acommand\x20ignores\x20vendor\x20directories\x20in\x20locations\x20other\x20than\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0aroot\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-get\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20get</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20[-d]\x20[-t]\x20[-u]\x20[build\x20flags]\x20[packages]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Examples:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Install\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20tool.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20golang.org/x/tools/cmd/goimports\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20a\x20specific\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/net\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20modules\x20that\x20provide\x20packages\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20-u\x20./...\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20or\x20downgrade\x20to\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@v0.3.2\x0a\x0a#\x20Update\x20to\x20the\x20commit\x20on\x20the\x20module's\x20master\x20branch.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@master\x0a\x0a#\x20Remove\x20a\x20dependency\x20on\x20a\x20module\x20and\x20downgrade\x20modules\x20that\x20require\x20it\x0a#\x20to\x20versions\x20that\x20don't\x20require\x20it.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@none\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20command\x20updates\x20module\x20dependencies\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-files\"><code>go.mod</code>\x0afile</a>\x20for\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>,\x20then\x20builds\x20and\x0ainstalls\x20packages\x20listed\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20first\x20step\x20is\x20to\x20determine\x20which\x20modules\x20to\x20update.\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20accepts\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20packages,\x20package\x20patterns,\x20and\x20module\x20paths\x20as\x20arguments.\x20If\x20a\x20package\x0aargument\x20is\x20specified,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20updates\x20the\x20module\x20that\x20provides\x20the\x20package.\x0aIf\x20a\x20package\x20pattern\x20is\x20specified\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>all</code>\x20or\x20a\x20path\x20with\x20a\x20<code>...</code>\x0awildcard),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20expands\x20the\x20pattern\x20to\x20a\x20set\x20of\x20packages,\x20then\x20updates\x20the\x0amodules\x20that\x20provide\x20the\x20packages.\x20If\x20an\x20argument\x20names\x20a\x20module\x20but\x20not\x20a\x0apackage\x20(for\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x20<code>golang.org/x/net</code>\x20has\x20no\x20package\x20in\x20its\x20root\x0adirectory),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20update\x20the\x20module\x20but\x20will\x20not\x20build\x20a\x20package.\x20If\x20no\x0aarguments\x20are\x20specified,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20acts\x20as\x20if\x20<code>.</code>\x20were\x20specified\x20(the\x20package\x20in\x0athe\x20current\x20directory);\x20this\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20together\x20with\x20the\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20to\x20update\x0amodules\x20that\x20provide\x20imported\x20packages.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20argument\x20may\x20include\x20a\x20<dfn>version\x20query\x20suffix</dfn>\x20indicating\x20the\x0adesired\x20version,\x20as\x20in\x20<code>go\x20get\x20golang.org/x/text@v0.3.0</code>.\x20A\x20version\x20query\x0asuffix\x20consists\x20of\x20an\x20<code>@</code>\x20symbol\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x20query</a>,\x0awhich\x20may\x20indicate\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20(<code>v0.3.0</code>),\x20a\x20version\x20prefix\x20(<code>v0.3</code>),\x0aa\x20branch\x20or\x20tag\x20name\x20(<code>master</code>),\x20a\x20revision\x20(<code>1234abcd</code>),\x20or\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20special\x0aqueries\x20<code>latest</code>,\x20<code>upgrade</code>,\x20<code>patch</code>,\x20or\x20<code>none</code>.\x20If\x20no\x20version\x20is\x20given,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>\x20uses\x20the\x20<code>@upgrade</code>\x20query.</p>\x0a<p>Once\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20has\x20resolved\x20its\x20arguments\x20to\x20specific\x20modules\x20and\x20versions,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20add,\x20change,\x20or\x20remove\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-require\"><code>require</code>\x20directives</a>\x20in\x20the\x0amain\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20to\x20ensure\x20the\x20modules\x20remain\x20at\x20the\x20desired\x0aversions\x20in\x20the\x20future.\x20Note\x20that\x20required\x20versions\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20are\x0a<em>minimum\x20versions</em>\x20and\x20may\x20be\x20increased\x20automatically\x20as\x20new\x20dependencies\x20are\x0aadded.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</a>\x20for\x0adetails\x20on\x20how\x20versions\x20are\x20selected\x20and\x20conflicts\x20are\x20resolved\x20by\x20module-aware\x0acommands.</p>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20add\x20diagrams\x20for\x20the\x20examples\x20below.\x0aWe\x20need\x20a\x20consistent\x20strategy\x20for\x20visualizing\x20module\x20graphs\x20here,\x20in\x20the\x20MVS\x0asection,\x20and\x20perhaps\x20in\x20other\x20documentation\x20(blog\x20posts,\x20etc.).\x0a-->\x0a<p>Other\x20modules\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line\x20is\x20added,\x0aupgraded,\x20or\x20downgraded\x20if\x20the\x20new\x20version\x20of\x20the\x20named\x20module\x20requires\x20other\x0amodules\x20at\x20higher\x20versions.\x20For\x20example,\x20suppose\x20module\x20<code>example.com/a</code>\x20is\x0aupgraded\x20to\x20version\x20<code>v1.5.0</code>,\x20and\x20that\x20version\x20requires\x20module\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x0aat\x20version\x20<code>v1.2.0</code>.\x20If\x20module\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20is\x20currently\x20required\x20at\x20version\x0a<code>v1.1.0</code>,\x20<code>go\x20get\x20example.com/a@v1.5.0</code>\x20will\x20also\x20upgrade\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20to\x0a<code>v1.2.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Other\x20modules\x20may\x20be\x20downgraded\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line\x20is\x0adowngraded\x20or\x20removed.\x20To\x20continue\x20the\x20above\x20example,\x20suppose\x20module\x0a<code>example.com/b</code>\x20is\x20downgraded\x20to\x20<code>v1.1.0</code>.\x20Module\x20<code>example.com/a</code>\x20would\x20also\x20be\x0adowngraded\x20to\x20a\x20version\x20that\x20requires\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20at\x20version\x20<code>v1.1.0</code>\x20or\x0alower.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20requirement\x20may\x20be\x20removed\x20using\x20the\x20version\x20suffix\x20<code>@none</code>.\x20This\x20is\x20a\x0aspecial\x20kind\x20of\x20downgrade.\x20Modules\x20that\x20depend\x20on\x20the\x20removed\x20module\x20will\x20be\x0adowngraded\x20or\x20removed\x20as\x20needed.\x20A\x20module\x20requirement\x20may\x20be\x20removed\x20even\x20if\x20one\x0aor\x20more\x20of\x20its\x20packages\x20are\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20In\x20this\x0acase,\x20the\x20next\x20build\x20command\x20may\x20add\x20a\x20new\x20module\x20requirement.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20module\x20is\x20needed\x20at\x20two\x20different\x20versions\x20(specified\x20explicitly\x20in\x20command\x0aline\x20arguments\x20or\x20to\x20satisfy\x20upgrades\x20and\x20downgrades),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20report\x20an\x0aerror.</p>\x0a<p>After\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20updates\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20it\x20builds\x20the\x20packages\x20named\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x20Executables\x20will\x20be\x20installed\x20in\x20the\x20directory\x20named\x20by\x0athe\x20<code>GOBIN</code>\x20environment\x20variable,\x20which\x20defaults\x20to\x20<code>$GOPATH/bin</code>\x20or\x0a<code>$HOME/go/bin</code>\x20if\x20the\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x20environment\x20variable\x20is\x20not\x20set.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20get</code>\x20supports\x20the\x20following\x20flags:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-d</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20not\x20to\x20build\x20or\x20install\x20packages.\x20When\x20<code>-d</code>\x20is\x0aused,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20only\x20manage\x20dependencies\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20upgrade\x20modules\x20providing\x20packages\x0aimported\x20directly\x20or\x20indirectly\x20by\x20packages\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x0aEach\x20module\x20selected\x20by\x20<code>-u</code>\x20will\x20be\x20upgraded\x20to\x20its\x20latest\x20version\x20unless\x0ait\x20is\x20already\x20required\x20at\x20a\x20higher\x20version\x20(a\x20pre-release).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-u=patch</code>\x20flag\x20(not\x20<code>-u\x20patch</code>)\x20also\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20upgrade\x0adependencies,\x20but\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20upgrade\x20each\x20dependency\x20to\x20the\x20latest\x20patch\x0aversion\x20(similar\x20to\x20the\x20<code>@patch</code>\x20version\x20query).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-t</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20consider\x20modules\x20needed\x20to\x20build\x20tests\x0aof\x20packages\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x20When\x20<code>-t</code>\x20and\x20<code>-u</code>\x20are\x20used\x20together,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20update\x20test\x20dependencies\x20as\x20well.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-insecure</code>\x20flag\x20should\x20no\x20longer\x20be\x20used.\x20It\x20permits\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20resolve\x0acustom\x20import\x20paths\x20and\x20fetch\x20from\x20repositories\x20and\x20module\x20proxies\x20using\x0ainsecure\x20schemes\x20such\x20as\x20HTTP.\x20The\x20<code>GOINSECURE</code>\x20<a\x20href=\"#environment-variables\">environment\x0avariable</a>\x20provides\x20more\x20fine-grained\x20control\x20and\x0ashould\x20be\x20used\x20instead.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-list-m\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20[-u]\x20[-versions]\x20[list\x20flags]\x20[modules]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20all\x0a$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20-versions\x20example.com/m\x0a$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/m@latest\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-m</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20list</code>\x20to\x20list\x20modules\x20instead\x20of\x20packages.\x20In\x20this\x0amode,\x20the\x20arguments\x20to\x20<code>go\x20list</code>\x20may\x20be\x20modules,\x20module\x20patterns\x20(containing\x20the\x0a<code>...</code>\x20wildcard),\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x20queries</a>,\x20or\x20the\x20special\x20pattern\x0a<code>all</code>,\x20which\x20matches\x20all\x20modules\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>.\x20If\x20no\x0aarguments\x20are\x20specified,\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>\x20is\x20listed.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20listing\x20modules,\x20the\x20<code>-f</code>\x20flag\x20still\x20specifies\x20a\x20format\x20template\x20applied\x0ato\x20a\x20Go\x20struct,\x20but\x20now\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct:</p>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20module\x20path\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20module\x20version\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Versions\x20\x20[]string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20available\x20module\x20versions\x20(with\x20-versions)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Replace\x20\x20\x20*Module\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20replaced\x20by\x20this\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Time\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20*time.Time\x20\x20\x20//\x20time\x20version\x20was\x20created\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Update\x20\x20\x20\x20*Module\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20available\x20update,\x20if\x20any\x20(with\x20-u)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Main\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20bool\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20is\x20this\x20the\x20main\x20module?\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Indirect\x20\x20bool\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20is\x20this\x20module\x20only\x20an\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20of\x20main\x20module?\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Dir\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20directory\x20holding\x20files\x20for\x20this\x20module,\x20if\x20any\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoMod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20path\x20to\x20go.mod\x20file\x20for\x20this\x20module,\x20if\x20any\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoVersion\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20go\x20version\x20used\x20in\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Error\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20*ModuleError\x20//\x20error\x20loading\x20module\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20ModuleError\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Err\x20string\x20//\x20the\x20error\x20itself\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20default\x20output\x20is\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20then\x20information\x20about\x20the\x0aversion\x20and\x20replacement\x20if\x20any.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code>\x20might\x20print:</p>\x0a<pre><code>example.com/main/module\x0agolang.org/x/text\x20v0.3.0\x20=&gt;\x20/tmp/text\x0arsc.io/pdf\x20v0.1.1\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct\x20has\x20a\x20<code>String</code>\x20method\x20that\x20formats\x20this\x20line\x20of\x20output,\x20so\x0athat\x20the\x20default\x20format\x20is\x20equivalent\x20to\x20<code>-f\x20'{{.String}}'</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20been\x20replaced,\x20its\x20<code>Replace</code>\x20field\x20describes\x20the\x0areplacement\x20module\x20module,\x20and\x20its\x20<code>Dir</code>\x20field\x20is\x20set\x20to\x20the\x20replacement\x0amodule's\x20source\x20code,\x20if\x20present.\x20(That\x20is,\x20if\x20<code>Replace</code>\x20is\x20non-nil,\x20then\x20<code>Dir</code>\x0ais\x20set\x20to\x20<code>Replace.Dir</code>,\x20with\x20no\x20access\x20to\x20the\x20replaced\x20source\x20code.)</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20adds\x20information\x20about\x20available\x20upgrades.\x20When\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x0aof\x20a\x20given\x20module\x20is\x20newer\x20than\x20the\x20current\x20one,\x20<code>list\x20-u</code>\x20sets\x20the\x20module's\x0a<code>Update</code>\x20field\x20to\x20information\x20about\x20the\x20newer\x20module.\x20The\x20module's\x20<code>String</code>\x0amethod\x20indicates\x20an\x20available\x20upgrade\x20by\x20formatting\x20the\x20newer\x20version\x20in\x0abrackets\x20after\x20the\x20current\x20version.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-u\x20all</code>\x20might\x0aprint:</p>\x0a<pre><code>example.com/main/module\x0agolang.org/x/text\x20v0.3.0\x20[v0.4.0]\x20=&gt;\x20/tmp/text\x0arsc.io/pdf\x20v0.1.1\x20[v0.1.2]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>(For\x20tools,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-u\x20-json\x20all</code>\x20may\x20be\x20more\x20convenient\x20to\x20parse.)</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-versions</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>list</code>\x20to\x20set\x20the\x20module's\x20<code>Versions</code>\x20field\x20to\x20a\x0alist\x20of\x20all\x20known\x20versions\x20of\x20that\x20module,\x20ordered\x20according\x20to\x20semantic\x0aversioning,\x20lowest\x20to\x20highest.\x20The\x20flag\x20also\x20changes\x20the\x20default\x20output\x20format\x0ato\x20display\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20followed\x20by\x20the\x20space-separated\x20version\x20list.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20template\x20function\x20<code>module</code>\x20takes\x20a\x20single\x20string\x20argument\x20that\x20must\x20be\x20a\x0amodule\x20path\x20or\x20query\x20and\x20returns\x20the\x20specified\x20module\x20as\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct.\x20If\x0aan\x20error\x20occurs,\x20the\x20result\x20will\x20be\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct\x20with\x20a\x20non-nil\x20<code>Error</code>\x0afield.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-download\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20download</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20download\x20[-json]\x20[-x]\x20[modules]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20mod\x20download\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20download\x20golang.org/x/mod@v0.2.0\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20download</code>\x20command\x20downloads\x20the\x20named\x20modules\x20into\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x0acache</a>.\x20Arguments\x20can\x20be\x20module\x20paths\x20or\x20module\x0apatterns\x20selecting\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20or\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x0aqueries</a>\x20of\x20the\x20form\x20<code>path@version</code>.\x20With\x20no\x20arguments,\x0a<code>download</code>\x20applies\x20to\x20all\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20automatically\x20download\x20modules\x20as\x20needed\x20during\x20ordinary\x0aexecution.\x20The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20download</code>\x20command\x20is\x20useful\x20mainly\x20for\x20pre-filling\x20the\x0amodule\x20cache\x20or\x20for\x20loading\x20data\x20to\x20be\x20served\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x0aproxy</a>.</p>\x0a<p>By\x20default,\x20<code>download</code>\x20writes\x20nothing\x20to\x20standard\x20output.\x20It\x20prints\x20progress\x0amessages\x20and\x20errors\x20to\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-json</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>download</code>\x20to\x20print\x20a\x20sequence\x20of\x20JSON\x20objects\x20to\x0astandard\x20output,\x20describing\x20each\x20downloaded\x20module\x20(or\x20failure),\x20corresponding\x0ato\x20this\x20Go\x20struct:</p>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20module\x20path\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20\x20string\x20//\x20module\x20version\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Error\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20error\x20loading\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Info\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.info\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoMod\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.mod\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Zip\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.zip\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Dir\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20source\x20root\x20directory\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Sum\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20checksum\x20for\x20path,\x20version\x20(as\x20in\x20go.sum)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoModSum\x20string\x20//\x20checksum\x20for\x20go.mod\x20(as\x20in\x20go.sum)\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-x</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>download</code>\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20commands\x20<code>download</code>\x20executes\x0ato\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-edit\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20[editing\x20flags]\x20[-fmt|-print|-json]\x20[go.mod]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Add\x20a\x20replace\x20directive.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-replace\x20example.com/a@v1.0.0=./a\x0a\x0a#\x20Remove\x20a\x20replace\x20directive.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-dropreplace\x20example.com/a@v1.0.0\x0a\x0a#\x20Set\x20the\x20go\x20version,\x20add\x20a\x20requirement,\x20and\x20print\x20the\x20file\x0a#\x20instead\x20of\x20writing\x20it\x20to\x20disk.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-go=1.14\x20-require=example.com/m@v1.0.0\x20-print\x0a\x0a#\x20Format\x20the\x20go.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-fmt\x0a\x0a#\x20Format\x20and\x20print\x20a\x20different\x20.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-print\x20tools.mod\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20a\x20JSON\x20representation\x20of\x20the\x20go.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-json\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20command\x20provides\x20a\x20command-line\x20interface\x20for\x20editing\x20and\x0aformatting\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files,\x20for\x20use\x20primarily\x20by\x20tools\x20and\x20scripts.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x0areads\x20only\x20one\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file;\x20it\x20does\x20not\x20look\x20up\x20information\x20about\x20other\x0amodules.\x20By\x20default,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20reads\x20and\x20writes\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20of\x20the\x0amain\x20module,\x20but\x20a\x20different\x20target\x20file\x20can\x20be\x20specified\x20after\x20the\x20editing\x0aflags.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20editing\x20flags\x20specify\x20a\x20sequence\x20of\x20editing\x20operations.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-module</code>\x20flag\x20changes\x20the\x20module's\x20path\x20(the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file's\x20module\x0aline).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-go=version</code>\x20flag\x20sets\x20the\x20expected\x20Go\x20language\x20version.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-require=path@version</code>\x20and\x20<code>-droprequire=path</code>\x20flags\x20add\x20and\x20drop\x20a\x0arequirement\x20on\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>-require</code>\x0aoverrides\x20any\x20existing\x20requirements\x20on\x20<code>path</code>.\x20These\x20flags\x20are\x20mainly\x20for\x0atools\x20that\x20understand\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20Users\x20should\x20prefer\x20<code>go\x20get\x20path@version</code>\x20or\x20<code>go\x20get\x20path@none</code>,\x20which\x20make\x20other\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20adjustments\x20as\x0aneeded\x20to\x20satisfy\x20constraints\x20imposed\x20by\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-exclude=path@version</code>\x20and\x20<code>-dropexclude=path@version</code>\x20flags\x20add\x20and\x20drop\x0aan\x20exclusion\x20for\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version.\x20Note\x20that\x0a<code>-exclude=path@version</code>\x20is\x20a\x20no-op\x20if\x20that\x20exclusion\x20already\x20exists.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-replace=old[@v]=new[@v]</code>\x20flag\x20adds\x20a\x20replacement\x20of\x20the\x20given\x20module\x0apath\x20and\x20version\x20pair.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20in\x20<code>old@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20a\x20replacement\x0awithout\x20a\x20version\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x20is\x20added,\x20which\x20applies\x20to\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x0athe\x20old\x20module\x20path.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20in\x20<code>new@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20the\x20new\x20path\x20should\x20be\x0aa\x20local\x20module\x20root\x20directory,\x20not\x20a\x20module\x20path.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>-replace</code>\x0aoverrides\x20any\x20redundant\x20replacements\x20for\x20<code>old[@v]</code>,\x20so\x20omitting\x20<code>@v</code>\x20will\x20drop\x0areplacements\x20for\x20specific\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-dropreplace=old[@v]</code>\x20flag\x20drops\x20a\x20replacement\x20of\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x0aand\x20version\x20pair.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20is\x20provided,\x20a\x20replacement\x20with\x20the\x20given\x0aversion\x20is\x20dropped.\x20An\x20existing\x20replacement\x20without\x20a\x20version\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x0amay\x20still\x20replace\x20the\x20module.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20a\x20replacement\x20without\x20a\x0aversion\x20is\x20dropped.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>The\x20editing\x20flags\x20may\x20be\x20repeated.\x20The\x20changes\x20are\x20applied\x20in\x20the\x20order\x20given.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20has\x20additional\x20flags\x20that\x20control\x20its\x20output.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-fmt</code>\x20flag\x20reformats\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20without\x20making\x20other\x20changes.\x0aThis\x20reformatting\x20is\x20also\x20implied\x20by\x20any\x20other\x20modifications\x20that\x20use\x20or\x0arewrite\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20only\x20time\x20this\x20flag\x20is\x20needed\x20is\x20if\x20no\x0aother\x20flags\x20are\x20specified,\x20as\x20in\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-fmt</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-print</code>\x20flag\x20prints\x20the\x20final\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20its\x20text\x20format\x20instead\x20of\x0awriting\x20it\x20back\x20to\x20disk.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-json</code>\x20flag\x20prints\x20the\x20final\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20JSON\x20format\x20instead\x20of\x20writing\x0ait\x20back\x20to\x20disk\x20in\x20text\x20format.\x20The\x20JSON\x20output\x20corresponds\x20to\x20these\x20Go\x20types:</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20string\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20GoMod\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Module\x20\x20Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Go\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Require\x20[]Require\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Exclude\x20[]Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Replace\x20[]Replace\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20Require\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Indirect\x20bool\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20Replace\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Old\x20Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20New\x20Module\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20this\x20only\x20describes\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20itself,\x20not\x20other\x20modules\x0areferred\x20to\x20indirectly.\x20For\x20the\x20full\x20set\x20of\x20modules\x20available\x20to\x20a\x20build,\x0ause\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20all</code>.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>.</p>\x0a<p>For\x20example,\x20a\x20tool\x20can\x20obtain\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20as\x20a\x20data\x20structure\x20by\x0aparsing\x20the\x20output\x20of\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-json</code>\x20and\x20can\x20then\x20make\x20changes\x20by\x20invoking\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20with\x20<code>-require</code>,\x20<code>-exclude</code>,\x20and\x20so\x20on.</p>\x0a<p>Tools\x20may\x20also\x20use\x20the\x20package\x0a<a\x20href=\"https://pkg.go.dev/golang.org/x/mod/modfile?tab=doc\"><code>golang.org/x/mod/modfile</code></a>\x0ato\x20parse,\x20edit,\x20and\x20format\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-init\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20init</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20init\x20[module-path]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20init\x0ago\x20mod\x20init\x20example.com/m\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20init</code>\x20command\x20initializes\x20and\x20writes\x20a\x20new\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20in\x20the\x0acurrent\x20directory,\x20in\x20effect\x20creating\x20a\x20new\x20module\x20rooted\x20at\x20the\x20current\x0adirectory.\x20The\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20must\x20not\x20already\x20exist.</p>\x0a<p><code>init</code>\x20accepts\x20one\x20optional\x20argument,\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\">module\x20path</a>\x20for\x0athe\x20new\x20module.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#module-path\">Module\x20paths</a>\x20for\x20instructions\x20on\x20choosing\x0aa\x20module\x20path.\x20If\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20argument\x20is\x20omitted,\x20<code>init</code>\x20will\x20attempt\x0ato\x20infer\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20using\x20import\x20comments\x20in\x20<code>.go</code>\x20files,\x20vendoring\x20tool\x0aconfiguration\x20files,\x20and\x20the\x20current\x20directory\x20(if\x20in\x20<code>GOPATH</code>).</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20configuration\x20file\x20for\x20a\x20vendoring\x20tool\x20is\x20present,\x20<code>init</code>\x20will\x20attempt\x20to\x0aimport\x20module\x20requirements\x20from\x20it.\x20<code>init</code>\x20supports\x20the\x20following\x20configuration\x0afiles.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><code>GLOCKFILE</code>\x20(Glock)</li>\x0a<li><code>Godeps/Godeps.json</code>\x20(Godeps)</li>\x0a<li><code>Gopkg.lock</code>\x20(dep)</li>\x0a<li><code>dependencies.tsv</code>\x20(godeps)</li>\x0a<li><code>glide.lock</code>\x20(glide)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor.conf</code>\x20(trash)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor.yml</code>\x20(govend)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor/manifest</code>\x20(gvt)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor/vendor.json</code>\x20(govendor)</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Vendoring\x20tool\x20configuration\x20files\x20can't\x20always\x20be\x20translated\x20with\x20perfect\x0afidelity.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20multiple\x20packages\x20within\x20the\x20same\x20repository\x20are\x0aimported\x20at\x20different\x20versions,\x20and\x20the\x20repository\x20only\x20contains\x20one\x20module,\x20the\x0aimported\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20can\x20only\x20require\x20the\x20module\x20at\x20one\x20version.\x20You\x20may\x20wish\x20to\x0arun\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>\x20to\x20check\x20all\x20versions\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x0alist</a>,\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20to\x20add\x20missing\x0arequirements\x20and\x20to\x20drop\x20unused\x20requirements.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-tidy\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy\x20[-v]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20ensures\x20that\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20matches\x20the\x20source\x20code\x20in\x20the\x0amodule.\x20It\x20adds\x20any\x20missing\x20module\x20requirements\x20necessary\x20to\x20build\x20the\x20current\x0amodule's\x20packages\x20and\x20dependencies,\x20and\x20it\x20removes\x20requirements\x20on\x20modules\x20that\x0adon't\x20provide\x20any\x20relevant\x20packages.\x20It\x20also\x20adds\x20any\x20missing\x20entries\x20to\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20and\x20removes\x20unnecessary\x20entries.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20to\x20print\x20information\x20about\x20removed\x20modules\x0ato\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20works\x20by\x20loading\x20all\x20of\x20the\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule</a>\x20and\x20all\x20of\x20the\x20packages\x20they\x20import,\x0arecursively.\x20This\x20includes\x20packages\x20imported\x20by\x20tests\x20(including\x20tests\x20in\x20other\x0amodules).\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20acts\x20as\x20if\x20all\x20build\x20tags\x20are\x20enabled,\x20so\x20it\x20will\x0aconsider\x20platform-specific\x20source\x20files\x20and\x20files\x20that\x20require\x20custom\x20build\x0atags,\x20even\x20if\x20those\x20source\x20files\x20wouldn't\x20normally\x20be\x20built.\x20There\x20is\x20one\x0aexception:\x20the\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20build\x20tag\x20is\x20not\x20enabled,\x20so\x20a\x20file\x20with\x20the\x20build\x0aconstraint\x20<code>//\x20+build\x20ignore</code>\x20will\x20not\x20be\x20considered.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x0awill\x20not\x20consider\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20in\x20directories\x20named\x20<code>testdata</code>\x20or\x0awith\x20names\x20that\x20start\x20with\x20<code>.</code>\x20or\x20<code>_</code>\x20unless\x20those\x20packages\x20are\x20explicitly\x0aimported\x20by\x20other\x20packages.</p>\x0a<p>Once\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20has\x20loaded\x20this\x20set\x20of\x20packages,\x20it\x20ensures\x20that\x20each\x20module\x0athat\x20provides\x20one\x20or\x20more\x20packages\x20either\x20has\x20a\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20in\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20or\x20is\x20required\x20by\x20another\x20required\x20module.\x20\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x0awill\x20add\x20a\x20requirement\x20on\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x20on\x20each\x20missing\x20module\x20(see\x0a<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">Version\x20queries</a>\x20for\x20the\x20definition\x20of\x20the\x20<code>latest</code>\x0aversion).\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20will\x20remove\x20<code>require</code>\x20directives\x20for\x20modules\x20that\x20don't\x0aprovide\x20any\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20set\x20described\x20above.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20may\x20also\x20add\x20or\x20remove\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments\x20on\x20<code>require</code>\x0adirectives.\x20An\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comment\x20denotes\x20a\x20module\x20that\x20does\x20not\x20provide\x0apackages\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20These\x20requirements\x20will\x20be\x0apresent\x20if\x20the\x20module\x20that\x20imports\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20has\x0ano\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20They\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20present\x20if\x20the\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20is\x0arequired\x20at\x20a\x20higher\x20version\x20than\x20is\x20implied\x20by\x20the\x20module\x20graph;\x20this\x20usually\x0ahappens\x20after\x20running\x20a\x20command\x20like\x20<code>go\x20get\x20-u\x20./...</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-vendor\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor\x20[-v]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20command\x20constructs\x20a\x20directory\x20named\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule's</a>\x20root\x20directory\x20that\x20contains\x20copies\x20of\x20all\x20packages\x0aneeded\x20to\x20support\x20builds\x20and\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20Packages\x0athat\x20are\x20only\x20imported\x20by\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20are\x20not\x0aincluded.\x20As\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20and\x20other\x20module\x20commands,\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-constraint\">build\x20constraints</a>\x20except\x20for\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20are\x20not\x0aconsidered\x20when\x20constructing\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20load\x20packages\x20from\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x0adirectory\x20instead\x20of\x20downloading\x20modules\x20from\x20their\x20sources\x20into\x20the\x20module\x0acache\x20and\x20using\x20packages\x20those\x20downloaded\x20copies.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vendoring\">Vendoring</a>\x0afor\x20more\x20information.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20also\x20creates\x20the\x20file\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20that\x20contains\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20vendored\x20packages\x20and\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20they\x20were\x20copied\x20from.\x20When\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20this\x20manifest\x20is\x20used\x20as\x20a\x20source\x20of\x20module\x20version\x0ainformation,\x20as\x20reported\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-version-m\"><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></a>.\x20When\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20reads\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>,\x20it\x20checks\x0athat\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20are\x20consistent\x20with\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20If\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20changed\x20since\x0a<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20was\x20generated,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20should\x20be\x20run\x20again.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20removes\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20if\x20it\x20exists\x20before\x0are-constructing\x20it.\x20Local\x20changes\x20should\x20not\x20be\x20made\x20to\x20vendored\x20packages.\x0aThe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20does\x20not\x20check\x20that\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20have\x0anot\x20been\x20modified,\x20but\x20one\x20can\x20verify\x20the\x20integrity\x20of\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x0aby\x20running\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20and\x20checking\x20that\x20no\x20changes\x20were\x20made.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20names\x20of\x20vendored\x20modules\x0aand\x20packages\x20to\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-verify\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20verify\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20that\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>\x0astored\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x20cache</a>\x20have\x20not\x20been\x20modified\x20since\x0athey\x20were\x20downloaded.\x20To\x20perform\x20this\x20check,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20hashes\x20each\x0adownloaded\x20module\x20<a\x20href=\"#zip-files\"><code>.zip</code>\x20file</a>\x20and\x20extracted\x20directory,\x20then\x0acompares\x20those\x20hashes\x20with\x20a\x20hash\x20recorded\x20when\x20the\x20module\x20was\x20first\x0adownloaded.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20each\x20module\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x0alist</a>\x20(which\x20may\x20be\x20printed\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>).</p>\x0a<p>If\x20all\x20the\x20modules\x20are\x20unmodified,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20prints\x20&quot;all\x20modules\x0averified&quot;.\x20Otherwise,\x20it\x20reports\x20which\x20modules\x20have\x20been\x20changed\x20and\x20exits\x20with\x0aa\x20non-zero\x20status.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20all\x20module-aware\x20commands\x20verify\x20that\x20hashes\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20file\x20match\x20hashes\x20recorded\x20for\x20modules\x20downloaded\x20into\x20the\x20module\x0acache.\x20If\x20a\x20hash\x20is\x20missing\x20from\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20(for\x20example,\x20because\x20the\x20module\x20is\x0abeing\x20used\x20for\x20the\x20first\x20time),\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20verifies\x20its\x20hash\x20using\x20the\x0a<a\x20href=\"#checksum-database\">checksum\x20database</a>\x20(unless\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20is\x20matched\x20by\x0a<code>GOPRIVATE</code>\x20or\x20<code>GONOSUMDB</code>).\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#authenticating\">Authenticating\x20modules</a>\x20for\x0adetails.</p>\x0a<p>In\x20contrast,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20that\x20module\x20<code>.zip</code>\x20files\x20and\x20their\x20extracted\x0adirectories\x20have\x20hashes\x20that\x20match\x20hashes\x20recorded\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20when\x20they\x0awere\x20first\x20downloaded.\x20This\x20is\x20useful\x20for\x20detecting\x20changes\x20to\x20files\x20in\x20the\x0amodule\x20cache\x20<em>after</em>\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20been\x20downloaded\x20and\x20verified.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x0adoes\x20not\x20download\x20content\x20for\x20modules\x20not\x20in\x20the\x20cache,\x20and\x20it\x20does\x20not\x20use\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20files\x20to\x20verify\x20module\x20content.\x20However,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20may\x20download\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20in\x20order\x20to\x20perform\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>.\x20It\x20will\x20use\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20to\x20verify\x20those\x0afiles,\x20and\x20it\x20may\x20add\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20entries\x20for\x20missing\x20hashes.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-version-m\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20version\x20[-m]\x20[-v]\x20[file\x20...]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20go.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20specific\x20executable.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20~/go/bin/gopls\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20and\x20module\x20versions\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20specific\x20executable.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/gopls\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20and\x20module\x20versions\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20executables\x20in\x20a\x20directory.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20version</code>\x20reports\x20the\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20each\x20executable\x20file\x20named\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20no\x20files\x20are\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20prints\x20its\x20own\x20version\x0ainformation.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20directory\x20is\x20named,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20walks\x20that\x20directory,\x20recursively,\x20looking\x0afor\x20recognized\x20Go\x20binaries\x20and\x20reporting\x20their\x20versions.\x20By\x20default,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20does\x20not\x20report\x20unrecognized\x20files\x20found\x20during\x20a\x20directory\x20scan.\x20The\x0a<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20it\x20to\x20report\x20unrecognized\x20files.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-m</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20to\x20print\x20each\x20executable's\x20embedded\x20module\x0aversion\x20information,\x20when\x20available.\x20For\x20each\x20executable,\x20<code>go\x20version\x20-m</code>\x20prints\x0aa\x20table\x20with\x20tab-separated\x20columns\x20like\x20the\x20one\x20below.</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/goimports\x0a/home/jrgopher/go/bin/goimports:\x20go1.14.3\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20path\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/tools/cmd/goimports\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20mod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/tools\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.0.0-20200518203908-8018eb2c26ba\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:0Lcy64USfQQL6GAJma8BdHCgeofcchQj+Z7j0SXYAzU=\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20dep\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/mod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.2.0\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:KU7oHjnv3XNWfa5COkzUifxZmxp1TyI7ImMXqFxLwvQ=\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20dep\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/xerrors\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.0.0-20191204190536-9bdfabe68543\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:E7g+9GITq07hpfrRu66IVDexMakfv52eLZ2CXBWiKr4=\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20format\x20of\x20the\x20table\x20may\x20change\x20in\x20the\x20future.\x20The\x20same\x20information\x20may\x20be\x0aobtained\x20from\x0a<a\x20href=\"https://pkg.go.dev/runtime/debug?tab=doc#ReadBuildInfo\"><code>runtime/debug.ReadBuildInfo</code></a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20meaning\x20of\x20each\x20row\x20in\x20the\x20table\x20is\x20determined\x20by\x20the\x20word\x20in\x20the\x20first\x0acolumn.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><strong><code>path</code></strong>:\x20the\x20path\x20of\x20the\x20<code>main</code>\x20package\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20the\x20executable.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>mod</code></strong>:\x20the\x20module\x20containing\x20the\x20<code>main</code>\x20package.\x20The\x20columns\x20are\x20the\x0amodule\x20path,\x20version,\x20and\x20sum,\x20respectively.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule</a>\x20has\x20the\x20version\x20<code>(devel)</code>\x20and\x20no\x20sum.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>dep</code></strong>:\x20a\x20module\x20that\x20provided\x20one\x20or\x20more\x20packages\x20linked\x20into\x20the\x0aexecutable.\x20Same\x20format\x20as\x20<code>mod</code>.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>=&gt;</code></strong>:\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\">replacement</a>\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20on\x20the\x20previous\x0aline.\x20If\x20the\x20replacement\x20is\x20a\x20local\x20directory,\x20only\x20the\x20directory\x20path\x20is\x0alisted\x20(no\x20version\x20or\x20sum).\x20If\x20the\x20replacement\x20is\x20a\x20module\x20version,\x20the\x20path,\x0aversion,\x20and\x20sum\x20are\x20listed,\x20as\x20with\x20<code>mod</code>\x20and\x20<code>dep</code>.\x20A\x20replaced\x20module\x20has\x0ano\x20sum.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-clean-modcache\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20clean\x20-modcache</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20clean\x20[-modcache]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-modcache</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<a\x20href=\"/cmd/go/#hdr-Remove_object_files_and_cached_files\"><code>go\x20clean</code></a>\x20to\x20remove\x20the\x20entire\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x20cache</a>,\x20including\x20unpacked\x20source\x20code\x20of\x20versioned\x0adependencies.</p>\x0a<p>This\x20is\x20usually\x20the\x20best\x20way\x20to\x20remove\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20By\x20default,\x20most\x20files\x0aand\x20directories\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20are\x20read-only\x20to\x20prevent\x20tests\x20and\x20editors\x0afrom\x20unintentionally\x20changing\x20files\x20after\x20they've\x20been\x0a<a\x20href=\"#authenticating\">authenticated</a>.\x20Unfortunately,\x20this\x20causes\x20commands\x20like\x0a<code>rm\x20-r</code>\x20to\x20fail,\x20since\x20files\x20can't\x20be\x20removed\x20without\x20first\x20making\x20their\x20parent\x0adirectories\x20writable.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-modcacherw</code>\x20flag\x20(accepted\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Compile_packages_and_dependencies\"><code>go\x20build</code></a>\x20and\x0aother\x20module-aware\x20commands)\x20causes\x20new\x20directories\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20to\x0abe\x20writable.\x20To\x20pass\x20<code>-modcacherw</code>\x20to\x20all\x20module-aware\x20commands,\x20add\x20it\x20to\x20the\x0a<code>GOFLAGS</code>\x20variable.\x20<code>GOFLAGS</code>\x20may\x20be\x20set\x20in\x20the\x20environment\x20or\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Print_Go_environment_information\"><code>go\x20env\x20-w</code></a>.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20the\x20command\x20below\x20sets\x20it\x20permanently:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20env\x20-w\x20GOFLAGS=-modcacherw\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>-modcacherw</code>\x20should\x20be\x20used\x20with\x20caution;\x20developers\x20should\x20be\x20careful\x20not\x0ato\x20make\x20changes\x20to\x20files\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-verify\"><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code></a>\x0amay\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20check\x20that\x20files\x20in\x20the\x20cache\x20match\x20hashes\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"version-queries\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Version\x20queries</h3>\x0a<p>Several\x20commands\x20allow\x20you\x20to\x20specify\x20a\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20using\x20a\x20<em>version\x0aquery</em>,\x20which\x20appears\x20after\x20an\x20<code>@</code>\x20character\x20following\x20a\x20module\x20or\x20package\x20path\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>Examples:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20example.com/m@latest\x0ago\x20mod\x20download\x20example.com/m@master\x0ago\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/m@e3702bed2\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>A\x20version\x20query\x20may\x20be\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20following:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>A\x20fully-specified\x20semantic\x20version,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>v1.2.3</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x20a\x0aspecific\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#versions\">Versions</a>\x20for\x20syntax.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20semantic\x20version\x20prefix,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>v1</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1.2</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x20the\x20highest\x0aavailable\x20version\x20with\x20that\x20prefix.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20semantic\x20version\x20comparison,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>&lt;v1.2.3</code>\x20or\x20<code>&gt;=v1.5.6</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x0athe\x20nearest\x20available\x20version\x20to\x20the\x20comparison\x20target\x20(the\x20lowest\x20version\x0afor\x20<code>&gt;</code>\x20and\x20<code>&gt;=</code>,\x20and\x20the\x20highest\x20version\x20for\x20<code>&lt;</code>\x20and\x20<code>&lt;=</code>).</li>\x0a<li>A\x20revision\x20identifier\x2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"<!--{\x0a\x20\x20\"Title\":\x20\"Go\x20Modules\x20Reference\",\x0a\x20\x20\"Subtitle\":\x20\"Version\x20of\x20Feb\x205,\x202019\",\x0a\x20\x20\"Path\":\x20\"/ref/mod\"\x0a}-->\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20change\x20anchors\x20to\x20header\x20id\x20attributes\x20either\x20during\x0amarkdown\x20rendering\x20or\x20as\x20HTML\x20postprocessing\x20step.\x20-->\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20use\x20<dfn>\x20tags\x20where\x20meaningful.\x0aCurrently,\x20*term*\x20is\x20used\x20instead,\x20which\x20renders\x20to\x20<em>term</em>.\x20-->\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"introduction\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Introduction</h2>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"modules-overview\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Modules,\x20packages,\x20and\x20versions</h2>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module\"><em>module</em></a>\x20is\x20a\x20collection\x20of\x20packages\x20that\x20are\x20released,\x0aversioned,\x20and\x20distributed\x20together.\x20A\x20module\x20is\x20identified\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\"><em>module\x0apath</em></a>,\x20which\x20is\x20declared\x20in\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-files\"><code>go.mod</code>\x0afile</a>,\x20together\x20with\x20information\x20about\x20the\x20module's\x0adependencies.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-root-directory\"><em>module\x20root\x20directory</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x0adirectory\x20that\x20contains\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\"><em>main\x0amodule</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20module\x20containing\x20the\x20directory\x20where\x20the\x0a<code>go</code>\x20command\x20is\x20invoked.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-package\"><em>package</em></a>\x20within\x20a\x20module\x20is\x20a\x20collection\x20of\x20source\x20files\x0ain\x20the\x20same\x20directory\x20that\x20are\x20compiled\x20together.\x20A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-package-path\"><em>package\x0apath</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20joined\x20with\x20the\x20subdirectory\x0acontaining\x20the\x20package\x20(relative\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20root).\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x0a<code>&quot;golang.org/x/net&quot;</code>\x20contains\x20a\x20package\x20in\x20the\x20directory\x20<code>&quot;html&quot;</code>.\x20That\x0apackage's\x20path\x20is\x20<code>&quot;golang.org/x/net/html&quot;</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"module-path\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Module\x20paths</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\"><em>module\x20path</em></a>\x20is\x20the\x20canonical\x20name\x20for\x20a\x20module,\x0adeclared\x20with\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-module\"><code>module</code>\x20directive</a>\x20in\x20the\x20module's\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20file</a>.\x20A\x20module's\x20path\x20is\x20the\x20prefix\x20for\x20package\x0apaths\x20within\x20the\x20module.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20path\x20should\x20describe\x20both\x20what\x20the\x20module\x20does\x20and\x20where\x20to\x20find\x20it.\x0aTypically,\x20a\x20module\x20path\x20consists\x20of\x20a\x20repository\x20root\x20path,\x20a\x20directory\x20within\x0athe\x20repository\x20(usually\x20empty),\x20and\x20a\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20(only\x20for\x20major\x0aversion\x202\x20or\x20higher).</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<dfn>repository\x20root\x20path</dfn>\x20is\x20the\x20portion\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20that\x0acorresponds\x20to\x20the\x20root\x20directory\x20of\x20the\x20version\x20control\x20repository\x20where\x20the\x0amodule\x20is\x20developed.\x20Most\x20modules\x20are\x20defined\x20in\x20their\x20repository's\x20root\x0adirectory,\x20so\x20this\x20is\x20usually\x20the\x20entire\x20path.\x20For\x20example,\x0a<code>golang.org/x/net</code>\x20is\x20the\x20repository\x20root\x20path\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20of\x20the\x20same\x0aname.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-find\">Finding\x20a\x20repository\x20for\x20a\x20module\x20path</a>\x20for\x20information\x0aon\x20how\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20locates\x20a\x20repository\x20using\x20HTTP\x20requests\x20derived\x0afrom\x20a\x20module\x20path.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20not\x20defined\x20in\x20the\x20repository's\x20root\x20directory,\x20the\x0a<dfn>module\x20subdirectory</dfn>\x20is\x20the\x20part\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20that\x20names\x20the\x0adirectory,\x20not\x20including\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20suffix.\x20This\x20also\x20serves\x20as\x20a\x0aprefix\x20for\x20semantic\x20version\x20tags.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x0a<code>golang.org/x/tools/gopls</code>\x20is\x20in\x20the\x20<code>gopls</code>\x20subdirectory\x20of\x20the\x20repository\x0awith\x20root\x20path\x20<code>golang.org/x/tools</code>,\x20so\x20it\x20has\x20the\x20module\x20subdirectory\x0a<code>gopls</code>.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-version\">Mapping\x20versions\x20to\x20commits</a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#vcs-dir\">Module\x0adirectories\x20within\x20a\x20repository</a>.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20released\x20at\x20major\x20version\x202\x20or\x20higher,\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20must\x0aend\x20with\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#major-version-suffixes\"><em>major\x20version\x20suffix</em></a>\x20like\x0a<code>/v2</code>.\x20This\x20may\x20or\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20part\x20of\x20the\x20subdirectory\x20name.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x0amodule\x20with\x20path\x20<code>golang.org/x/repo/sub/v2</code>\x20could\x20be\x20in\x20the\x20<code>/sub</code>\x20or\x0a<code>/sub/v2</code>\x20subdirectory\x20of\x20the\x20repository\x20<code>golang.org/x/repo</code>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20module\x20might\x20be\x20depended\x20on\x20by\x20other\x20modules,\x20these\x20rules\x20must\x20be\x20followed\x0aso\x20that\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20can\x20find\x20and\x20download\x20the\x20module.\x20There\x20are\x20also\x0aseveral\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-ident\">lexical\x20restrictions</a>\x20on\x20characters\x20allowed\x20in\x0amodule\x20paths.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"versions\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Versions</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-version\"><em>version</em></a>\x20identifies\x20an\x20immutable\x20snapshot\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x20which\x0amay\x20be\x20either\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-release-version\">release</a>\x20or\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>.\x20Each\x20version\x20starts\x20with\x20the\x20letter\x0a<code>v</code>,\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20semantic\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html\">Semantic\x20Versioning\x0a2.0.0</a>\x20for\x20details\x20on\x20how\x20versions\x20are\x0aformatted,\x20interpreted,\x20and\x20compared.</p>\x0a<p>To\x20summarize,\x20a\x20semantic\x20version\x20consists\x20of\x20three\x20non-negative\x20integers\x20(the\x0amajor,\x20minor,\x20and\x20patch\x20versions,\x20from\x20left\x20to\x20right)\x20separated\x20by\x20dots.\x20The\x0apatch\x20version\x20may\x20be\x20followed\x20by\x20an\x20optional\x20pre-release\x20string\x20starting\x20with\x20a\x0ahyphen.\x20The\x20pre-release\x20string\x20or\x20patch\x20version\x20may\x20be\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20build\x0ametadata\x20string\x20starting\x20with\x20a\x20plus.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v0.0.0</code>,\x20<code>v1.12.134</code>,\x0a<code>v8.0.5-pre</code>,\x20and\x20<code>v2.0.9+meta</code>\x20are\x20valid\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20part\x20of\x20a\x20version\x20indicates\x20whether\x20the\x20version\x20is\x20stable\x20and\x20whether\x20it\x20is\x0acompatible\x20with\x20previous\x20versions.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version\">major\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20and\x20the\x20minor\x0aand\x20patch\x20versions\x20must\x20be\x20set\x20to\x20zero\x20after\x20a\x20backwards\x20incompatible\x20change\x0ais\x20made\x20to\x20the\x20module's\x20public\x20interface\x20or\x20documented\x20functionality,\x20for\x0aexample,\x20after\x20a\x20package\x20is\x20removed.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-minor-version\">minor\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20and\x20the\x20patch\x0aversion\x20set\x20to\x20zero\x20after\x20a\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20change,\x20for\x20example,\x20after\x20a\x0anew\x20function\x20is\x20added.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-patch-version\">patch\x20version</a>\x20must\x20be\x20incremented\x20after\x20a\x20change\x0athat\x20does\x20not\x20affect\x20the\x20module's\x20public\x20interface,\x20such\x20as\x20a\x20bug\x20fix\x20or\x0aoptimization.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20pre-release\x20suffix\x20indicates\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>.\x20Pre-release\x20versions\x20sort\x20before\x0athe\x20corresponding\x20release\x20versions.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v1.2.3-pre</code>\x20comes\x20before\x0a<code>v1.2.3</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20build\x20metadata\x20suffix\x20is\x20ignored\x20for\x20the\x20purpose\x20of\x20comparing\x20versions.\x0aTags\x20with\x20build\x20metadata\x20are\x20ignored\x20in\x20version\x20control\x20repositories,\x20but\x0abuild\x20metadata\x20is\x20preserved\x20in\x20versions\x20specified\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files.\x20The\x0asuffix\x20<code>+incompatible</code>\x20denotes\x20a\x20version\x20released\x20before\x20migrating\x20to\x20modules\x0aversion\x20major\x20version\x202\x20or\x20later\x20(see\x20<a\x20href=\"#non-module-compat\">Compatibility\x20with\x20non-module\x0arepositories</a>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>A\x20version\x20is\x20considered\x20unstable\x20if\x20its\x20major\x20version\x20is\x200\x20or\x20it\x20has\x20a\x0apre-release\x20suffix.\x20Unstable\x20versions\x20are\x20not\x20subject\x20to\x20compatibility\x0arequirements.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>v0.2.0</code>\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x20with\x20<code>v0.1.0</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>v1.5.0-beta</code>\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x20with\x20<code>v1.5.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Go\x20may\x20access\x20modules\x20in\x20version\x20control\x20systems\x20using\x20tags,\x20branches,\x20or\x0arevisions\x20that\x20don't\x20follow\x20these\x20conventions.\x20However,\x20within\x20the\x20main\x20module,\x0athe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20automatically\x20convert\x20revision\x20names\x20that\x20don't\x20follow\x0athis\x20standard\x20into\x20canonical\x20versions.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20also\x20remove\x20build\x0ametadata\x20suffixes\x20(except\x20for\x20<code>+incompatible</code>)\x20as\x20part\x20of\x20this\x20process.\x20This\x20may\x0aresult\x20in\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-pseudo-version\"><em>pseudo-version</em></a>,\x20a\x20pre-release\x20version\x20that\x0aencodes\x20a\x20revision\x20identifier\x20(such\x20as\x20a\x20Git\x20commit\x20hash)\x20and\x20a\x20timestamp\x20from\x20a\x0aversion\x20control\x20system.\x20For\x20example,\x20the\x20command\x20<code>go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/net@daa7c041</code>\x20will\x20convert\x20the\x20commit\x20hash\x20<code>daa7c041</code>\x20into\x20the\x0apseudo-version\x20<code>v0.0.0-20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>.\x20Canonical\x20versions\x20are\x0arequired\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module,\x20and\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error\x20if\x20a\x0anon-canonical\x20version\x20like\x20<code>master</code>\x20appears\x20in\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"pseudo-versions\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Pseudo-versions</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<dfn>pseudo-version</dfn>\x20is\x20a\x20specially\x20formatted\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-pre-release-version\">pre-release</a>\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-version\">version</a>\x20that\x20encodes\x0ainformation\x20about\x20a\x20specific\x20revision\x20in\x20a\x20version\x20control\x20repository.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20<code>v0.0.0-20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>\x20is\x20a\x20pseudo-version.</p>\x0a<p>Pseudo-versions\x20may\x20refer\x20to\x20revisions\x20for\x20which\x20no\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-semantic-version-tag\">semantic\x20version\x0atags</a>\x20are\x20available.\x20They\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20test\x0acommits\x20before\x20creating\x20version\x20tags,\x20for\x20example,\x20on\x20a\x20development\x20branch.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20pseudo-version\x20has\x20three\x20parts:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>A\x20base\x20version\x20prefix\x20(<code>vX.0.0</code>\x20or\x20<code>vX.Y.Z-0</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20either\x20derived\x20from\x20a\x0asemantic\x20version\x20tag\x20that\x20precedes\x20the\x20revision\x20or\x20<code>vX.0.0</code>\x20if\x20there\x20is\x20no\x0asuch\x20tag.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20timestamp\x20(<code>yymmddhhmmss</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20the\x20UTC\x20time\x20the\x20revision\x20was\x20created.\x0aIn\x20Git,\x20this\x20is\x20the\x20commit\x20time,\x20not\x20the\x20author\x20time.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20revision\x20identifier\x20(<code>abcdefabcdef</code>),\x20which\x20is\x20a\x2012-character\x20prefix\x20of\x20the\x0acommit\x20hash,\x20or\x20in\x20Subversion,\x20a\x20zero-padded\x20revision\x20number.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Each\x20pseudo-version\x20may\x20be\x20in\x20one\x20of\x20three\x20forms,\x20depending\x20on\x20the\x20base\x20version.\x0aThese\x20forms\x20ensure\x20that\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20compares\x20higher\x20than\x20its\x20base\x20version,\x0abut\x20lower\x20than\x20the\x20next\x20tagged\x20version.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><code>vX.0.0-yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20there\x20is\x20no\x20known\x20base\x0aversion.\x20As\x20with\x20all\x20versions,\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20<code>X</code>\x20must\x20match\x20the\x20module's\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version-suffix\">major\x20version\x20suffix</a>.</li>\x0a<li><code>vX.Y.Z-pre.0.yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0aa\x20pre-release\x20version\x20like\x20<code>vX.Y.Z-pre</code>.</li>\x0a<li><code>vX.Y.(Z+1)-0.yyyymmddhhmmss-abcdefabcdef</code>\x20is\x20used\x20when\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0aa\x20release\x20version\x20like\x20<code>vX.Y.Z</code>.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20the\x20base\x20version\x20is\x0a<code>v1.2.3</code>,\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20might\x20be\x20<code>v1.2.4-0.20191109021931-daa7c04131f5</code>.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>More\x20than\x20one\x20pseudo-version\x20may\x20refer\x20to\x20the\x20same\x20commit\x20by\x20using\x20different\x0abase\x20versions.\x20This\x20happens\x20naturally\x20when\x20a\x20lower\x20version\x20is\x20tagged\x20after\x20a\x0apseudo-version\x20is\x20written.</p>\x0a<p>These\x20forms\x20give\x20pseudo-versions\x20two\x20useful\x20properties:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>Pseudo-versions\x20with\x20known\x20base\x20versions\x20sort\x20higher\x20than\x20those\x20versions\x20but\x0alower\x20than\x20other\x20pre-release\x20for\x20later\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>Pseudo-versions\x20with\x20the\x20same\x20base\x20version\x20prefix\x20sort\x20chronologically.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20performs\x20several\x20checks\x20to\x20ensure\x20that\x20module\x20authors\x20have\x0acontrol\x20over\x20how\x20pseudo-versions\x20are\x20compared\x20with\x20other\x20versions\x20and\x20that\x0apseudo-versions\x20refer\x20to\x20revisions\x20that\x20are\x20actually\x20part\x20of\x20a\x20module's\x0acommit\x20history.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>If\x20a\x20base\x20version\x20is\x20specified,\x20there\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20corresponding\x20semantic\x20version\x0atag\x20that\x20is\x20an\x20ancestor\x20of\x20the\x20revision\x20described\x20by\x20the\x20pseudo-version.\x20This\x0aprevents\x20developers\x20from\x20bypassing\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20using\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x20that\x0acompares\x20higher\x20than\x20all\x20tagged\x20versions\x20like\x0a<code>v1.999.999-99999999999999-daa7c04131f5</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20timestamp\x20must\x20match\x20the\x20revision's\x20timestamp.\x20This\x20prevents\x20attackers\x0afrom\x20flooding\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x20proxies</a>\x20with\x20an\x20unbounded\x20number\x0aof\x20otherwise\x20identical\x20pseudo-versions.\x20This\x20also\x20prevents\x20module\x20consumers\x0afrom\x20changing\x20the\x20relative\x20ordering\x20of\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20revision\x20must\x20be\x20an\x20ancestor\x20of\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20repository's\x20branches\x20or\x0atags.\x20This\x20prevents\x20attackers\x20from\x20referring\x20to\x20unapproved\x20changes\x20or\x20pull\x0arequests.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Pseudo-versions\x20never\x20need\x20to\x20be\x20typed\x20by\x20hand.\x20Many\x20commands\x20accept\x0aa\x20commit\x20hash\x20or\x20a\x20branch\x20name\x20and\x20will\x20translate\x20it\x20into\x20a\x20pseudo-version\x0a(or\x20tagged\x20version\x20if\x20available)\x20automatically.\x20For\x20example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20-d\x20example.com/mod@master\x0ago\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/mod@abcd1234\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"major-version-suffixes\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Major\x20version\x20suffixes</h3>\x0a<p>Starting\x20with\x20major\x20version\x202,\x20module\x20paths\x20must\x20have\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-major-version-suffix\"><em>major\x20version\x0asuffix</em></a>\x20like\x20<code>/v2</code>\x20that\x20matches\x20the\x20major\x0aversion.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20the\x20path\x20<code>example.com/mod</code>\x20at\x20<code>v1.0.0</code>,\x20it\x0amust\x20have\x20the\x20path\x20<code>example.com/mod/v2</code>\x20at\x20version\x20<code>v2.0.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20implement\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-import\"><em>import\x20compatibility\x0arule</em></a>:</p>\x0a<blockquote>\x0a<p>If\x20an\x20old\x20package\x20and\x20a\x20new\x20package\x20have\x20the\x20same\x20import\x20path,\x0athe\x20new\x20package\x20must\x20be\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20with\x20the\x20old\x20package.</p>\x0a</blockquote>\x0a<p>By\x20definition,\x20packages\x20in\x20a\x20new\x20major\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20are\x20not\x20backwards\x0acompatible\x20with\x20the\x20corresponding\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20previous\x20major\x20version.\x0aConsequently,\x20starting\x20with\x20<code>v2</code>,\x20packages\x20need\x20new\x20import\x20paths.\x20This\x20is\x0aaccomplished\x20by\x20adding\x20a\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20path.\x20Since\x20the\x0amodule\x20path\x20is\x20a\x20prefix\x20of\x20the\x20import\x20path\x20for\x20each\x20package\x20within\x20the\x20module,\x0aadding\x20the\x20major\x20version\x20suffix\x20to\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20provides\x20a\x20distinct\x20import\x0apath\x20for\x20each\x20incompatible\x20version.</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20are\x20not\x20allowed\x20at\x20major\x20versions\x20<code>v0</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1</code>.\x20There\x20is\x0ano\x20need\x20to\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20between\x20<code>v0</code>\x20and\x20<code>v1</code>\x20because\x20<code>v0</code>\x20versions\x0aare\x20unstable\x20and\x20have\x20no\x20compatibility\x20guarantee.\x20Additionally,\x20for\x20most\x0amodules,\x20<code>v1</code>\x20is\x20backwards\x20compatible\x20with\x20the\x20last\x20<code>v0</code>\x20version;\x20a\x20<code>v1</code>\x20version\x0aacts\x20as\x20a\x20commitment\x20to\x20compatibility,\x20rather\x20than\x20an\x20indication\x20of\x0aincompatible\x20changes\x20compared\x20with\x20<code>v0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>As\x20a\x20special\x20case,\x20modules\x20paths\x20starting\x20with\x20<code>gopkg.in/</code>\x20must\x20always\x20have\x20a\x0amajor\x20version\x20suffix,\x20even\x20at\x20<code>v0</code>\x20and\x20<code>v1</code>.\x20The\x20suffix\x20must\x20start\x20with\x20a\x20dot\x0arather\x20than\x20a\x20slash\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>gopkg.in/yaml.v2</code>).</p>\x0a<p>Major\x20version\x20suffixes\x20let\x20multiple\x20major\x20versions\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20coexist\x20in\x20the\x0asame\x20build.\x20This\x20may\x20be\x20necessary\x20due\x20to\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-import#dependency_story\">diamond\x20dependency\x0aproblem</a>.\x20Ordinarily,\x20if\x0aa\x20module\x20is\x20required\x20at\x20two\x20different\x20versions\x20by\x20transitive\x20dependencies,\x20the\x0ahigher\x20version\x20will\x20be\x20used.\x20However,\x20if\x20the\x20two\x20versions\x20are\x20incompatible,\x0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s.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Versions\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20may\x20be\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-canonical-version\">canonical</a>\x20or\x0anon-canonical.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20canonical\x20version\x20starts\x20with\x20the\x20letter\x20<code>v</code>,\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20semantic\x20version\x0afollowing\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"https://semver.org/spec/v2.0.0.html\">Semantic\x20Versioning\x202.0.0</a>\x0aspecification.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#versions\">Versions</a>\x20for\x20more\x20information.</p>\x0a<p>Most\x20other\x20identifiers\x20and\x20strings\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20as\x20non-canonical\x20versions,\x20though\x0athere\x20are\x20some\x20restrictions\x20to\x20avoid\x20problems\x20with\x20file\x20systems,\x20repositories,\x0aand\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x20proxies</a>.\x20Non-canonical\x20versions\x20are\x20only\x0aallowed\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20attempt\x20to\x0areplace\x20each\x20non-canonical\x20version\x20with\x20an\x20equivalent\x20canonical\x20version\x20when\x20it\x0aautomatically\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-updates\">updates</a>\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p>In\x20places\x20where\x20a\x20module\x20path\x20is\x20associated\x20with\x20a\x20verison\x20(as\x20in\x20<code>require</code>,\x0a<code>replace</code>,\x20and\x20<code>exclude</code>\x20directives),\x20the\x20final\x20path\x20element\x20must\x20be\x20consistent\x0awith\x20the\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#major-version-suffixes\">Major\x20version\x20suffixes</a>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-grammar\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Grammar</h3>\x0a<p><code>go.mod</code>\x20syntax\x20is\x20specified\x20below\x20using\x20Extended\x20Backus-Naur\x20Form\x20(EBNF).\x0aSee\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"/ref/spec#Notation\">Notation\x20section\x20in\x20the\x20Go\x20Language\x20Specificiation</a>\x0afor\x20details\x20on\x20EBNF\x20syntax.</p>\x0a<pre><code>GoMod\x20=\x20{\x20Directive\x20}\x20.\x0aDirective\x20=\x20ModuleDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20GoDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20RequireDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20ExcludeDirective\x20|\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20ReplaceDirective\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Newlines,\x20identifiers,\x20and\x20strings\x20are\x20denoted\x20with\x20<code>newline</code>,\x20<code>ident</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>string</code>,\x20respectively.</p>\x0a<p>Module\x20paths\x20and\x20versions\x20are\x20denoted\x20with\x20<code>ModulePath</code>\x20and\x20<code>Version</code>.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ModulePath\x20=\x20ident\x20|\x20string\x20.\x20/*\x20see\x20restrictions\x20above\x20*/\x0aVersion\x20=\x20ident\x20|\x20string\x20.\x20\x20\x20\x20/*\x20see\x20restrictions\x20above\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-module\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>module</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive\x20defines\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\">path</a>.\x20A\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20must\x20contain\x20exactly\x20one\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ModuleDirective\x20=\x20&quot;module&quot;\x20(\x20ModulePath\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20ModulePath\x20newline\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>module\x20golang.org/x/net\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-go\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>go</code>\x20directive\x20sets\x20the\x20expected\x20language\x20version\x20for\x20the\x20module.\x20The\x0aversion\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20valid\x20Go\x20release\x20version:\x20a\x20positive\x20integer\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20dot\x0aand\x20a\x20non-negative\x20integer\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>1.9</code>,\x20<code>1.14</code>).</p>\x0a<p>The\x20language\x20version\x20determines\x20which\x20language\x20features\x20are\x20available\x20when\x0acompiling\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20module.\x20Language\x20features\x20present\x20in\x20that\x20version\x0awill\x20be\x20available\x20for\x20use.\x20Language\x20features\x20removed\x20in\x20earlier\x20versions,\x0aor\x20added\x20in\x20later\x20versions,\x20will\x20not\x20be\x20available.\x20The\x20language\x20version\x20does\x20not\x0aaffect\x20build\x20tags,\x20which\x20are\x20determined\x20by\x20the\x20Go\x20release\x20being\x20used.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20language\x20version\x20is\x20also\x20used\x20to\x20enable\x20features\x20in\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20automatic\x20<a\x20href=\"#vendoring\">vendoring</a>\x20may\x20be\x20enabled\x20with\x20a\x20<code>go</code>\x20version\x20of\x0a<code>1.14</code>\x20or\x20higher.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20may\x20contain\x20at\x20most\x20one\x20<code>go</code>\x20directive.\x20Most\x20commands\x20will\x20add\x20a\x0a<code>go</code>\x20directive\x20with\x20the\x20current\x20Go\x20version\x20if\x20one\x20is\x20not\x20present.</p>\x0a<pre><code>GoDirective\x20=\x20&quot;go&quot;\x20GoVersion\x20newline\x20.\x0aGoVersion\x20=\x20string\x20|\x20ident\x20.\x20\x20/*\x20valid\x20release\x20version;\x20see\x20above\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x201.14\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-require\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>require</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20declares\x20a\x20minimum\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20given\x20module\x0adependency.\x20For\x20each\x20required\x20module\x20version,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20loads\x20the\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20for\x20that\x20version\x20and\x20incorporates\x20the\x20requirements\x20from\x20that\x0afile.\x20Once\x20all\x20requirements\x20have\x20been\x20loaded,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20resolves\x20them\x0ausing\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</a>\x20to\x20produce\x0athe\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20automatically\x20adds\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments\x20for\x20some\x0arequirements.\x20An\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comment\x20indicates\x20that\x20no\x20package\x20from\x20the\x0arequired\x20module\x20is\x20directly\x20imported\x20by\x20any\x20package\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x0aThe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20adds\x20an\x20indirect\x20requirement\x20when\x20the\x20selected\x20version\x20of\x20a\x0amodule\x20is\x20higher\x20than\x20what\x20is\x20already\x20implied\x20(transitively)\x20by\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20other\x20dependencies.\x20That\x20may\x20occur\x20because\x20of\x20an\x20explicit\x20upgrade\x0a(<code>go\x20get\x20-u</code>),\x20removal\x20of\x20some\x20other\x20dependency\x20that\x20previously\x20imposed\x20the\x0arequirement\x20(<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>),\x20or\x20a\x20dependency\x20that\x20imports\x20a\x20package\x20without\x0aa\x20corresponding\x20requirement\x20in\x20its\x20own\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20(such\x20as\x20a\x20dependency\x0athat\x20lacks\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20altogether).</p>\x0a<pre><code>RequireDirective\x20=\x20&quot;require&quot;\x20(\x20RequireSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20RequireSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20)\x20.\x0aRequireSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>require\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x0arequire\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/crypto\x20v1.4.5\x20//\x20indirect\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/text\x20v1.6.7\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-exclude\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>exclude</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>An\x20<code>exclude</code>\x20directive\x20prevents\x20a\x20module\x20version\x20from\x20being\x20loaded\x20by\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x0acommand.\x20If\x20an\x20excluded\x20version\x20is\x20referenced\x20by\x20a\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20in\x20a\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20list\x20available\x20versions\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20(as\x0ashown\x20with\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-versions</code>)\x20and\x20will\x20load\x20the\x20next\x20higher\x20non-excluded\x0aversion\x20instead.\x20Both\x20release\x20and\x20pre-release\x20versions\x20are\x20considered\x20for\x20this\x0apurpose,\x20but\x20pseudo-versions\x20are\x20not.\x20If\x20there\x20are\x20no\x20higher\x20versions,\x0athe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x20Note\x20that\x20this\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/issue/36465\">may\x0achange</a>\x20in\x20Go\x201.15.</p>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(golang.org/issue/36465):\x20update\x20after\x20change\x20-->\x0a<p><code>exclude</code>\x20directives\x20only\x20apply\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20and\x20are\x0aignored\x20in\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20for\x20details.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ExcludeDirective\x20=\x20&quot;exclude&quot;\x20(\x20ExcludeSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20ExcludeSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20)\x20.\x0aExcludeSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>exclude\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x0aexclude\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/crypto\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/text\x20v1.6.7\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-replace\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>replace</code>\x20directive</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20<code>replace</code>\x20directive\x20replaces\x20the\x20contents\x20of\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x0aor\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x20a\x20module,\x20with\x20contents\x20found\x20elsewhere.\x20The\x20replacement\x0amay\x20be\x20specified\x20with\x20either\x20another\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version,\x20or\x20a\x0aplatform-specific\x20file\x20path.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20present\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x20of\x20the\x20arrow\x20(<code>=&gt;</code>),\x20only\x20that\x20specific\x0aversion\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20is\x20replaced;\x20other\x20versions\x20will\x20be\x20accessed\x20normally.\x0aIf\x20the\x20left\x20version\x20is\x20omitted,\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20are\x20replaced.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20path\x20on\x20the\x20right\x20side\x20of\x20the\x20arrow\x20is\x20an\x20absolute\x20or\x20relative\x20path\x0a(beginning\x20with\x20<code>./</code>\x20or\x20<code>../</code>),\x20it\x20is\x20interpreted\x20as\x20the\x20local\x20file\x20path\x20to\x20the\x0areplacement\x20module\x20root\x20directory,\x20which\x20must\x20contain\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x0areplacement\x20version\x20must\x20be\x20omitted\x20in\x20this\x20case.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20path\x20on\x20the\x20right\x20side\x20is\x20not\x20a\x20local\x20path,\x20it\x20must\x20be\x20a\x20valid\x20module\x0apath.\x20In\x20this\x20case,\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20required.\x20The\x20same\x20module\x20version\x20must\x20not\x0aalso\x20appear\x20in\x20the\x20build\x20list.</p>\x0a<p>Regardless\x20of\x20whether\x20a\x20replacement\x20is\x20specified\x20with\x20a\x20local\x20path\x20or\x20module\x0apath,\x20if\x20the\x20replacement\x20module\x20has\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20its\x20<code>module</code>\x20directive\x0amust\x20match\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20it\x20replaces.</p>\x0a<p><code>replace</code>\x20directives\x20only\x20apply\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x0aand\x20are\x20ignored\x20in\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>\x20for\x20details.</p>\x0a<pre><code>ReplaceDirective\x20=\x20&quot;replace&quot;\x20(\x20ReplaceSpec\x20|\x20&quot;(&quot;\x20newline\x20{\x20ReplaceSpec\x20}\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20newline\x20&quot;)&quot;\x20)\x20.\x0aReplaceSpec\x20=\x20ModulePath\x20[\x20Version\x20]\x20&quot;=&gt;&quot;\x20FilePath\x20newline\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20|\x20ModulePath\x20[\x20Version\x20]\x20&quot;=&gt;&quot;\x20ModulePath\x20Version\x20newline\x20.\x0aFilePath\x20=\x20/*\x20platform-specific\x20relative\x20or\x20absolute\x20file\x20path\x20*/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>replace\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x0areplace\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20=&gt;\x20example.com/fork/net\x20v1.4.5\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20v1.2.3\x20=&gt;\x20./fork/net\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/net\x20=&gt;\x20./fork/net\x0a)\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go.mod-updates\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Automatic\x20updates</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20automatically\x20updates\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20when\x20it\x20uses\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20if\x0asome\x20information\x20is\x20missing\x20or\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20doesn't\x20accurately\x20reflect\x20reality.\x20\x20For\x0aexample,\x20consider\x20this\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file:</p>\x0a<pre><code>module\x20example.com/M\x0a\x0arequire\x20(\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/A\x20v1\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/B\x20v1.0.0\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/C\x20v1.0.0\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/D\x20v1.2.3\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20example.com/E\x20dev\x0a)\x0a\x0aexclude\x20example.com/D\x20v1.2.3\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20rewrites\x20non-canonical\x20version\x20identifiers\x20to\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-canonical-version\">canonical</a>\x20semver\x20form,\x20so\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20<code>v1</code>\x0abecomes\x20<code>v1.0.0</code>,\x20and\x20<code>example.com/E</code>'s\x20<code>dev</code>\x20becomes\x20the\x20pseudo-version\x20for\x20the\x0alatest\x20commit\x20on\x20the\x20<code>dev</code>\x20branch,\x20perhaps\x20<code>v0.0.0-20180523231146-b3f5c0f6e5f1</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20modifies\x20requirements\x20to\x20respect\x20exclusions,\x20so\x20the\x20requirement\x20on\x0athe\x20excluded\x20<code>example.com/D\x20v1.2.3</code>\x20is\x20updated\x20to\x20use\x20the\x20next\x20available\x20version\x0aof\x20<code>example.com/D</code>,\x20perhaps\x20<code>v1.2.4</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1.3.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20update\x20removes\x20redundant\x20or\x20misleading\x20requirements.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x0a<code>example.com/A\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20itself\x20requires\x20<code>example.com/B\x20v1.2.0</code>\x20and\x20<code>example.com/C\x20v1.0.0</code>,\x20then\x20<code>go.mod</code>'s\x20requirement\x20of\x20<code>example.com/B\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20is\x20misleading\x0a(superseded\x20by\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20need\x20for\x20<code>v1.2.0</code>),\x20and\x20its\x20requirement\x20of\x0a<code>example.com/C\x20v1.0.0</code>\x20is\x20redundant\x20(implied\x20by\x20<code>example.com/A</code>'s\x20need\x20for\x20the\x0asame\x20version),\x20so\x20both\x20will\x20be\x20removed.\x20If\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20contains\x20packages\x0athat\x20directly\x20import\x20packages\x20from\x20<code>example.com/B</code>\x20or\x20<code>example.com/C</code>,\x20then\x20the\x0arequirements\x20will\x20be\x20kept\x20but\x20updated\x20to\x20the\x20actual\x20versions\x20being\x20used.</p>\x0a<p>Finally,\x20the\x20update\x20reformats\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20a\x20canonical\x20formatting,\x20so\x0athat\x20future\x20mechanical\x20changes\x20will\x20result\x20in\x20minimal\x20diffs.\x20The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x0awill\x20not\x20update\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20if\x20only\x20formatting\x20changes\x20are\x20needed.</p>\x0a<p>Because\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20defines\x20the\x20meaning\x20of\x20import\x20statements,\x20any\x20commands\x0athat\x20load\x20packages\x20also\x20use\x20and\x20therefore\x20update\x20<code>go.mod</code>,\x20including\x20<code>go\x20build</code>,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>,\x20<code>go\x20install</code>,\x20<code>go\x20list</code>,\x20<code>go\x20test</code>,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20graph</code>,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>,\x20and\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20why</code>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-mod=readonly</code>\x20flag\x20prevents\x20commands\x20from\x20automatically\x20updating\x0a<code>go.mod</code>.\x20However,\x20if\x20a\x20command\x20needs\x20to\x20perform\x20an\x20action\x20that\x20would\x0aupdate\x20to\x20<code>go.mod</code>,\x20it\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x0a<code>go\x20build</code>\x20is\x20asked\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20package\x20not\x20provided\x20by\x20any\x20module\x20in\x20the\x20build\x0alist,\x20<code>go\x20build</code>\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error\x20instead\x20of\x20looking\x20up\x20the\x20module\x20and\x0aupdating\x20requirements\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"minimal-version-selection\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</h2>\x0a<p>Go\x20uses\x20an\x20algorithm\x20called\x20<dfn>Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</dfn>\x20to\x20select\x0aa\x20set\x20of\x20module\x20versions\x20to\x20use\x20when\x20building\x20packages.\x20MVS\x20is\x20described\x20in\x0adetail\x20in\x20<a\x20href=\"https://research.swtch.com/vgo-mvs\">Minimal\x20Version\x20Selection</a>\x20by\x0aRuss\x20Cox.</p>\x0a<p>Conceptually,\x20MVS\x20operates\x20on\x20a\x20directed\x20graph\x20of\x20modules,\x20specified\x20with\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20files</a>.\x20Each\x20vertex\x20in\x20the\x20graph\x20represents\x20a\x0amodule\x20version.\x20Each\x20edge\x20represents\x20a\x20minimum\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20dependency,\x0aspecified\x20using\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-require\"><code>require</code></a>\x0adirective.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\"><code>replace</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-exclude\"><code>exclude</code></a>\x0adirectives\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20modify\x20the\x20graph.</p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20produces\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>\x20as\x20output,\x20the\x20list\x20of\x20module\x0aversions\x20used\x20for\x20a\x20build.</p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20starts\x20at\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20(a\x20special\x20vertex\x20in\x20the\x20graph\x20that\x20has\x20no\x0aversion)\x20and\x20traverses\x20the\x20graph,\x20tracking\x20the\x20highest\x20required\x20version\x20of\x20each\x0amodule.\x20At\x20the\x20end\x20of\x20the\x20traversal,\x20the\x20highest\x20required\x20versions\x20comprise\x20the\x0abuild\x20list:\x20they\x20are\x20the\x20minimum\x20versions\x20that\x20satisfy\x20all\x20requirements.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20build\x20list\x20may\x20be\x20inspected\x20with\x20the\x20command\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>.\x20Unlike\x20other\x20dependency\x20management\x20systems,\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20is\x0anot\x20saved\x20in\x20a\x20&quot;lock&quot;\x20file.\x20MVS\x20is\x20deterministic,\x20and\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20doesn't\x0achange\x20when\x20new\x20versions\x20of\x20dependencies\x20are\x20released,\x20so\x20MVS\x20is\x20used\x20to\x20compute\x0ait\x20at\x20the\x20beginning\x20of\x20every\x20module-aware\x20command.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20in\x20the\x20diagram\x20below.\x20The\x20main\x20module\x20requires\x20module\x20A\x0aat\x20version\x201.2\x20or\x20higher\x20and\x20module\x20B\x20at\x20version\x201.2\x20or\x20higher.\x20A\x201.2\x20and\x20B\x201.2\x0arequire\x20C\x201.3\x20and\x20C\x201.4,\x20respectively.\x20C\x201.3\x20and\x20C\x201.4\x20both\x20require\x20D\x201.2.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/buildlist.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20visited\x20versions\x20highlighted\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20build\x20list\x20graph\"></p>\x0a<p>MVS\x20visits\x20and\x20loads\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20for\x20each\x20of\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x0ahighlighted\x20in\x20blue.\x20At\x20the\x20end\x20of\x20the\x20graph\x20traversal,\x20MVS\x20returns\x20a\x20build\x20list\x0acontaining\x20the\x20bolded\x20versions:\x20A\x201.2,\x20B\x201.2,\x20C\x201.4,\x20and\x20D\x201.2.\x20Note\x20that\x20higher\x0aversions\x20of\x20B\x20and\x20D\x20are\x20available\x20but\x20MVS\x20does\x20not\x20select\x20them,\x20since\x20nothing\x0arequires\x20them.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-replace\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Replacement</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20content\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20(including\x20its\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file)\x20may\x20be\x20replaced\x20using\x20a\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\"><code>replace</code>\x20directive</a>\x20in\x20the\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x0aA\x20<code>replace</code>\x20directive\x20may\x20apply\x20to\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20or\x20to\x20all\x0aversions\x20of\x20a\x20module.</p>\x0a<p>Replacements\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20graph,\x20since\x20a\x20replacement\x20module\x20may\x20have\x0adifferent\x20dependencies\x20than\x20replaced\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below,\x20where\x20C\x201.4\x20has\x20been\x20replaced\x20with\x20R.\x20R\x20depends\x20on\x20D\x0a1.3\x20instead\x20of\x20D\x201.2,\x20so\x20MVS\x20returns\x20a\x20build\x20list\x20containing\x20A\x201.2,\x20B\x201.2,\x20C\x201.4\x0a(replaced\x20with\x20R),\x20and\x20D\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/replace.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20a\x20replacement\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20replacment\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-exclude\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Exclusion</h3>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20excluded\x20at\x20specific\x20versions\x20using\x20an\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-exclude\"><code>exclude</code>\x0adirective</a>\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p>Exclusions\x20also\x20change\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20When\x20a\x20version\x20is\x20excluded,\x20it\x20is\x0aremoved\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph,\x20and\x20requirements\x20on\x20it\x20are\x20redirected\x20to\x20the\x0anext\x20higher\x20version.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20C\x201.3\x20has\x20been\x20excluded.\x20MVS\x20will\x20act\x20as\x20if\x20A\x201.2\x0arequired\x20C\x201.4\x20(the\x20next\x20higher\x20version)\x20instead\x20of\x20C\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/exclude.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20an\x20exclusion\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20exclude\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-upgrade\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Upgrades</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20command\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20upgrade\x20a\x20set\x20of\x20modules.\x20To\x0aperform\x20an\x20upgrade,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20changes\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20before\x20running\x20MVS\x0aby\x20adding\x20edges\x20from\x20visited\x20versions\x20to\x20upgraded\x20versions.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20Module\x20B\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20from\x201.2\x20to\x201.3,\x20C\x20may\x20be\x0aupgraded\x20from\x201.3\x20to\x201.4,\x20and\x20D\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20from\x201.2\x20to\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/upgrade.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20upgrades\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20upgrade\"></p>\x0a<p>Upgrades\x20(and\x20downgrades)\x20may\x20add\x20or\x20remove\x20indirect\x20dependencies.\x20In\x20this\x20case,\x0aE\x201.1\x20and\x20F\x201.1\x20appear\x20in\x20the\x20build\x20list\x20after\x20the\x20upgrade,\x20since\x20E\x201.1\x20is\x0arequired\x20by\x20B\x201.3.</p>\x0a<p>To\x20preserve\x20upgrades,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20updates\x20the\x20requirements\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20\x20It\x0awill\x20change\x20the\x20requirement\x20on\x20B\x20to\x20version\x201.3.\x20It\x20will\x20also\x20add\x20requirements\x0aon\x20C\x201.4\x20and\x20D\x201.3\x20with\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments,\x20since\x20those\x20versions\x20would\x20not\x0abe\x20selected\x20otherwise.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mvs-downgrade\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Downgrade</h3>\x0a<p>The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20command\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20downgrade\x20a\x20set\x20of\x0amodules.\x20To\x20perform\x20a\x20downgrade,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20changes\x20the\x20module\x20graph\x20by\x0aremoving\x20versions\x20above\x20the\x20downgraded\x20versions.\x20It\x20also\x20removes\x20versions\x20of\x0aother\x20modules\x20that\x20depend\x20on\x20removed\x20versions,\x20since\x20they\x20may\x20not\x20be\x20compatible\x0awith\x20the\x20downgraded\x20versions\x20of\x20their\x20dependencies.\x20If\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20requires\x0aa\x20module\x20version\x20removed\x20by\x20downgrading,\x20the\x20requirement\x20is\x20changed\x20to\x20a\x0aprevious\x20version\x20that\x20has\x20not\x20been\x20removed.\x20If\x20no\x20previous\x20version\x20is\x20available,\x0athe\x20requirement\x20is\x20dropped.</p>\x0a<p>Consider\x20the\x20example\x20below.\x20Suppose\x20that\x20a\x20problem\x20was\x20found\x20with\x20C\x201.4,\x20so\x20we\x0adowngrade\x20to\x20C\x201.3.\x20C\x201.4\x20is\x20removed\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20B\x201.2\x20is\x20also\x0aremoved,\x20since\x20it\x20requires\x20C\x201.4\x20or\x20higher.\x20The\x20main\x20module's\x20requirement\x20on\x20B\x0ais\x20changed\x20to\x201.1.</p>\x0a<p><img\x20src=\"/doc/mvs/downgrade.svg\"\x20alt=\"Module\x20version\x20graph\x20with\x20downgrade\"\x20title=\"MVS\x20downgrade\"></p>\x0a<p><a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20can\x20also\x20remove\x20dependencies\x20entirely,\x20using\x20an\x20<code>@none</code>\x0asuffix\x20after\x20an\x20argument.\x20This\x20works\x20similarly\x20to\x20a\x20downgrade.\x20All\x20versions\x0aof\x20the\x20named\x20module\x20are\x20removed\x20from\x20the\x20module\x20graph.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"non-module-compat\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Compatibility\x20with\x20non-module\x20repositories</h2>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x0a*\x20Synthesized\x20go.mod\x20file\x20in\x20root\x20directory.\x0a*\x20+incompatible\x0a*\x20Minimal\x20module\x20compatibility.\x0a-->\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"mod-commands\"></a></p>\x0a<h2>Module-aware\x20commands</h2>\x0a<p>Most\x20<code>go</code>\x20commands\x20may\x20run\x20in\x20<em>Module-aware\x20mode</em>\x20or\x20<em><code>GOPATH</code>\x20mode</em>.\x20In\x0amodule-aware\x20mode,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20uses\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20to\x20find\x20versioned\x0adependencies,\x20and\x20it\x20typically\x20loads\x20packages\x20out\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x0acache</a>,\x20downloading\x20modules\x20if\x20they\x20are\x20missing.\x20In\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x0amode,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20ignores\x20modules;\x20it\x20looks\x20in\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directories\x20and\x20in\x0a<code>GOPATH</code>\x20to\x20find\x20dependencies.</p>\x0a<p>Module-aware\x20mode\x20is\x20active\x20by\x20default\x20whenever\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20found\x20in\x20the\x0acurrent\x20directory\x20or\x20in\x20any\x20parent\x20directory.\x20For\x20more\x20fine-grained\x20control,\x20the\x0a<code>GO111MODULE</code>\x20environment\x20variable\x20may\x20be\x20set\x20to\x20one\x20of\x20three\x20values:\x20<code>on</code>,\x0a<code>off</code>,\x20or\x20<code>auto</code>.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=off</code>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20ignores\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20and\x20runs\x20in\x0a<code>GOPATH</code>\x20mode.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=on</code>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20runs\x20in\x20module-aware\x20mode,\x20even\x20when\x0ano\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20present.\x20Not\x20all\x20commands\x20work\x20without\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file:\x0asee\x20<a\x20href=\"#commands-outside\">Module\x20commands\x20outside\x20a\x20module</a>.</li>\x0a<li>If\x20<code>GO111MODULE=auto</code>\x20or\x20is\x20unset,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20runs\x20in\x20module-aware\x0amode\x20if\x20a\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20is\x20present\x20in\x20the\x20current\x20directory\x20or\x20any\x20parent\x0adirectory\x20(the\x20default\x20behavior).</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>In\x20module-aware\x20mode,\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x20no\x20longer\x20defines\x20the\x20meaning\x20of\x20imports\x20during\x20a\x0abuild,\x20but\x20it\x20still\x20stores\x20downloaded\x20dependencies\x20(in\x20<code>GOPATH/pkg/mod</code>;\x20see\x0a<a\x20href=\"#module-cache\">Module\x20cache</a>)\x20and\x20installed\x20commands\x20(in\x20<code>GOPATH/bin</code>,\x20unless\x0a<code>GOBIN</code>\x20is\x20set).</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"build-commands\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Build\x20commands</h3>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"vendoring\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Vendoring</h3>\x0a<p>When\x20using\x20modules,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20typically\x20satisfies\x20dependencies\x20by\x0adownloading\x20modules\x20from\x20their\x20sources\x20into\x20the\x20module\x20cache,\x20then\x20loading\x0apackages\x20from\x20those\x20downloaded\x20copies.\x20<em>Vendoring</em>\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20allow\x0ainteroperation\x20with\x20older\x20versions\x20of\x20Go,\x20or\x20to\x20ensure\x20that\x20all\x20files\x20used\x20for\x20a\x0abuild\x20are\x20stored\x20in\x20a\x20single\x20file\x20tree.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20command\x20constructs\x20a\x20directory\x20named\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule's</a>\x20root\x20directory\x20containing\x20copies\x20of\x20all\x20packages\x0aneeded\x20to\x20build\x20and\x20test\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20Packages\x20that\x20are\x20only\x0aimported\x20by\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20are\x20not\x20included.\x20As\x20with\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20and\x20other\x20module\x20commands,\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-constraint\">build\x0aconstraints</a>\x20except\x20for\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20are\x20not\x20considered\x20when\x0aconstructing\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20also\x20creates\x20the\x20file\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20that\x20contains\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20vendored\x20packages\x20and\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20they\x20were\x20copied\x20from.\x20When\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20this\x20manifest\x20is\x20used\x20as\x20a\x20source\x20of\x20module\x20version\x0ainformation,\x20as\x20reported\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-version-m\"><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></a>.\x20When\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20reads\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>,\x20it\x20checks\x0athat\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20are\x20consistent\x20with\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20If\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20has\x20changed\x0asince\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20was\x20generated,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20report\x20an\x20error.\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20should\x20be\x20run\x20again\x20to\x20update\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20is\x20present\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x20root\x20directory,\x20it\x0awill\x20be\x20used\x20automatically\x20if\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-go\"><code>go</code>\x20version</a>\x20in\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-go.mod-file\"><code>go.mod</code>\x20file</a>\x20is\x20<code>1.14</code>\x20or\x20higher.\x20To\x20explicitly\x0aenable\x20vendoring,\x20invoke\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20with\x20the\x20flag\x20<code>-mod=vendor</code>.\x20To\x0adisable\x20vendoring,\x20use\x20the\x20flag\x20<code>-mod=mod</code>.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20<a\x20href=\"#build-commands\">build\x20commands</a>\x20like\x20<code>go\x20build</code>\x20and\x0a<code>go\x20test</code>\x20load\x20packages\x20from\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20instead\x20of\x20accessing\x20the\x0anetwork\x20or\x20the\x20local\x20module\x20cache.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20command\x20only\x0aprints\x20information\x20about\x20modules\x20listed\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20<code>go\x20mod</code>\x20commands\x20such\x20as\x0a<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-download\"><code>go\x20mod\x20download</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20do\x20not\x0awork\x20differently\x20when\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled\x20and\x20will\x20still\x20download\x20modules\x20and\x0aaccess\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>\x20also\x20does\x20not\x20work\x20differently\x20when\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled.</p>\x0a<p>Unlike\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/s/go15vendor\">vendoring\x20in\x20<code>GOPATH</code></a>,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x0acommand\x20ignores\x20vendor\x20directories\x20in\x20locations\x20other\x20than\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0aroot\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-get\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20get</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20[-d]\x20[-t]\x20[-u]\x20[build\x20flags]\x20[packages]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Examples:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Install\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20tool.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20golang.org/x/tools/cmd/goimports\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20a\x20specific\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/net\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20modules\x20that\x20provide\x20packages\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20-u\x20./...\x0a\x0a#\x20Upgrade\x20or\x20downgrade\x20to\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@v0.3.2\x0a\x0a#\x20Update\x20to\x20the\x20commit\x20on\x20the\x20module's\x20master\x20branch.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@master\x0a\x0a#\x20Remove\x20a\x20dependency\x20on\x20a\x20module\x20and\x20downgrade\x20modules\x20that\x20require\x20it\x0a#\x20to\x20versions\x20that\x20don't\x20require\x20it.\x0a$\x20go\x20get\x20-d\x20golang.org/x/text@none\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20command\x20updates\x20module\x20dependencies\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-files\"><code>go.mod</code>\x0afile</a>\x20for\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>,\x20then\x20builds\x20and\x0ainstalls\x20packages\x20listed\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20first\x20step\x20is\x20to\x20determine\x20which\x20modules\x20to\x20update.\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20accepts\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20packages,\x20package\x20patterns,\x20and\x20module\x20paths\x20as\x20arguments.\x20If\x20a\x20package\x0aargument\x20is\x20specified,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20updates\x20the\x20module\x20that\x20provides\x20the\x20package.\x0aIf\x20a\x20package\x20pattern\x20is\x20specified\x20(for\x20example,\x20<code>all</code>\x20or\x20a\x20path\x20with\x20a\x20<code>...</code>\x0awildcard),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20expands\x20the\x20pattern\x20to\x20a\x20set\x20of\x20packages,\x20then\x20updates\x20the\x0amodules\x20that\x20provide\x20the\x20packages.\x20If\x20an\x20argument\x20names\x20a\x20module\x20but\x20not\x20a\x0apackage\x20(for\x20example,\x20the\x20module\x20<code>golang.org/x/net</code>\x20has\x20no\x20package\x20in\x20its\x20root\x0adirectory),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20update\x20the\x20module\x20but\x20will\x20not\x20build\x20a\x20package.\x20If\x20no\x0aarguments\x20are\x20specified,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20acts\x20as\x20if\x20<code>.</code>\x20were\x20specified\x20(the\x20package\x20in\x0athe\x20current\x20directory);\x20this\x20may\x20be\x20used\x20together\x20with\x20the\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20to\x20update\x0amodules\x20that\x20provide\x20imported\x20packages.</p>\x0a<p>Each\x20argument\x20may\x20include\x20a\x20<dfn>version\x20query\x20suffix</dfn>\x20indicating\x20the\x0adesired\x20version,\x20as\x20in\x20<code>go\x20get\x20golang.org/x/text@v0.3.0</code>.\x20A\x20version\x20query\x0asuffix\x20consists\x20of\x20an\x20<code>@</code>\x20symbol\x20followed\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x20query</a>,\x0awhich\x20may\x20indicate\x20a\x20specific\x20version\x20(<code>v0.3.0</code>),\x20a\x20version\x20prefix\x20(<code>v0.3</code>),\x0aa\x20branch\x20or\x20tag\x20name\x20(<code>master</code>),\x20a\x20revision\x20(<code>1234abcd</code>),\x20or\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20special\x0aqueries\x20<code>latest</code>,\x20<code>upgrade</code>,\x20<code>patch</code>,\x20or\x20<code>none</code>.\x20If\x20no\x20version\x20is\x20given,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>\x20uses\x20the\x20<code>@upgrade</code>\x20query.</p>\x0a<p>Once\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20has\x20resolved\x20its\x20arguments\x20to\x20specific\x20modules\x20and\x20versions,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20add,\x20change,\x20or\x20remove\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-require\"><code>require</code>\x20directives</a>\x20in\x20the\x0amain\x20module's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20to\x20ensure\x20the\x20modules\x20remain\x20at\x20the\x20desired\x0aversions\x20in\x20the\x20future.\x20Note\x20that\x20required\x20versions\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20are\x0a<em>minimum\x20versions</em>\x20and\x20may\x20be\x20increased\x20automatically\x20as\x20new\x20dependencies\x20are\x0aadded.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">Minimal\x20version\x20selection\x20(MVS)</a>\x20for\x0adetails\x20on\x20how\x20versions\x20are\x20selected\x20and\x20conflicts\x20are\x20resolved\x20by\x20module-aware\x0acommands.</p>\x0a<!--\x20TODO(jayconrod):\x20add\x20diagrams\x20for\x20the\x20examples\x20below.\x0aWe\x20need\x20a\x20consistent\x20strategy\x20for\x20visualizing\x20module\x20graphs\x20here,\x20in\x20the\x20MVS\x0asection,\x20and\x20perhaps\x20in\x20other\x20documentation\x20(blog\x20posts,\x20etc.).\x0a-->\x0a<p>Other\x20modules\x20may\x20be\x20upgraded\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line\x20is\x20added,\x0aupgraded,\x20or\x20downgraded\x20if\x20the\x20new\x20version\x20of\x20the\x20named\x20module\x20requires\x20other\x0amodules\x20at\x20higher\x20versions.\x20For\x20example,\x20suppose\x20module\x20<code>example.com/a</code>\x20is\x0aupgraded\x20to\x20version\x20<code>v1.5.0</code>,\x20and\x20that\x20version\x20requires\x20module\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x0aat\x20version\x20<code>v1.2.0</code>.\x20If\x20module\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20is\x20currently\x20required\x20at\x20version\x0a<code>v1.1.0</code>,\x20<code>go\x20get\x20example.com/a@v1.5.0</code>\x20will\x20also\x20upgrade\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20to\x0a<code>v1.2.0</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Other\x20modules\x20may\x20be\x20downgraded\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line\x20is\x0adowngraded\x20or\x20removed.\x20To\x20continue\x20the\x20above\x20example,\x20suppose\x20module\x0a<code>example.com/b</code>\x20is\x20downgraded\x20to\x20<code>v1.1.0</code>.\x20Module\x20<code>example.com/a</code>\x20would\x20also\x20be\x0adowngraded\x20to\x20a\x20version\x20that\x20requires\x20<code>example.com/b</code>\x20at\x20version\x20<code>v1.1.0</code>\x20or\x0alower.</p>\x0a<p>A\x20module\x20requirement\x20may\x20be\x20removed\x20using\x20the\x20version\x20suffix\x20<code>@none</code>.\x20This\x20is\x20a\x0aspecial\x20kind\x20of\x20downgrade.\x20Modules\x20that\x20depend\x20on\x20the\x20removed\x20module\x20will\x20be\x0adowngraded\x20or\x20removed\x20as\x20needed.\x20A\x20module\x20requirement\x20may\x20be\x20removed\x20even\x20if\x20one\x0aor\x20more\x20of\x20its\x20packages\x20are\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20In\x20this\x0acase,\x20the\x20next\x20build\x20command\x20may\x20add\x20a\x20new\x20module\x20requirement.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20module\x20is\x20needed\x20at\x20two\x20different\x20versions\x20(specified\x20explicitly\x20in\x20command\x0aline\x20arguments\x20or\x20to\x20satisfy\x20upgrades\x20and\x20downgrades),\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20report\x20an\x0aerror.</p>\x0a<p>After\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20updates\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file,\x20it\x20builds\x20the\x20packages\x20named\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x20Executables\x20will\x20be\x20installed\x20in\x20the\x20directory\x20named\x20by\x0athe\x20<code>GOBIN</code>\x20environment\x20variable,\x20which\x20defaults\x20to\x20<code>$GOPATH/bin</code>\x20or\x0a<code>$HOME/go/bin</code>\x20if\x20the\x20<code>GOPATH</code>\x20environment\x20variable\x20is\x20not\x20set.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20get</code>\x20supports\x20the\x20following\x20flags:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-d</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20not\x20to\x20build\x20or\x20install\x20packages.\x20When\x20<code>-d</code>\x20is\x0aused,\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20only\x20manage\x20dependencies\x20in\x20<code>go.mod</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20upgrade\x20modules\x20providing\x20packages\x0aimported\x20directly\x20or\x20indirectly\x20by\x20packages\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x0aEach\x20module\x20selected\x20by\x20<code>-u</code>\x20will\x20be\x20upgraded\x20to\x20its\x20latest\x20version\x20unless\x0ait\x20is\x20already\x20required\x20at\x20a\x20higher\x20version\x20(a\x20pre-release).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-u=patch</code>\x20flag\x20(not\x20<code>-u\x20patch</code>)\x20also\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20upgrade\x0adependencies,\x20but\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20upgrade\x20each\x20dependency\x20to\x20the\x20latest\x20patch\x0aversion\x20(similar\x20to\x20the\x20<code>@patch</code>\x20version\x20query).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-t</code>\x20flag\x20tells\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20consider\x20modules\x20needed\x20to\x20build\x20tests\x0aof\x20packages\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line.\x20When\x20<code>-t</code>\x20and\x20<code>-u</code>\x20are\x20used\x20together,\x0a<code>go\x20get</code>\x20will\x20update\x20test\x20dependencies\x20as\x20well.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-insecure</code>\x20flag\x20should\x20no\x20longer\x20be\x20used.\x20It\x20permits\x20<code>go\x20get</code>\x20to\x20resolve\x0acustom\x20import\x20paths\x20and\x20fetch\x20from\x20repositories\x20and\x20module\x20proxies\x20using\x0ainsecure\x20schemes\x20such\x20as\x20HTTP.\x20The\x20<code>GOINSECURE</code>\x20<a\x20href=\"#environment-variables\">environment\x0avariable</a>\x20provides\x20more\x20fine-grained\x20control\x20and\x0ashould\x20be\x20used\x20instead.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-list-m\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20[-u]\x20[-versions]\x20[list\x20flags]\x20[modules]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20all\x0a$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20-versions\x20example.com/m\x0a$\x20go\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/m@latest\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-m</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20list</code>\x20to\x20list\x20modules\x20instead\x20of\x20packages.\x20In\x20this\x0amode,\x20the\x20arguments\x20to\x20<code>go\x20list</code>\x20may\x20be\x20modules,\x20module\x20patterns\x20(containing\x20the\x0a<code>...</code>\x20wildcard),\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x20queries</a>,\x20or\x20the\x20special\x20pattern\x0a<code>all</code>,\x20which\x20matches\x20all\x20modules\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x20list</a>.\x20If\x20no\x0aarguments\x20are\x20specified,\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>\x20is\x20listed.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20listing\x20modules,\x20the\x20<code>-f</code>\x20flag\x20still\x20specifies\x20a\x20format\x20template\x20applied\x0ato\x20a\x20Go\x20struct,\x20but\x20now\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct:</p>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20module\x20path\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20module\x20version\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Versions\x20\x20[]string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20available\x20module\x20versions\x20(with\x20-versions)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Replace\x20\x20\x20*Module\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20replaced\x20by\x20this\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Time\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20*time.Time\x20\x20\x20//\x20time\x20version\x20was\x20created\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Update\x20\x20\x20\x20*Module\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20available\x20update,\x20if\x20any\x20(with\x20-u)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Main\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20bool\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20is\x20this\x20the\x20main\x20module?\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Indirect\x20\x20bool\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20is\x20this\x20module\x20only\x20an\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20of\x20main\x20module?\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Dir\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20directory\x20holding\x20files\x20for\x20this\x20module,\x20if\x20any\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoMod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20path\x20to\x20go.mod\x20file\x20for\x20this\x20module,\x20if\x20any\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoVersion\x20string\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20//\x20go\x20version\x20used\x20in\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Error\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20*ModuleError\x20//\x20error\x20loading\x20module\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20ModuleError\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Err\x20string\x20//\x20the\x20error\x20itself\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20default\x20output\x20is\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20then\x20information\x20about\x20the\x0aversion\x20and\x20replacement\x20if\x20any.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code>\x20might\x20print:</p>\x0a<pre><code>example.com/main/module\x0agolang.org/x/text\x20v0.3.0\x20=&gt;\x20/tmp/text\x0arsc.io/pdf\x20v0.1.1\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct\x20has\x20a\x20<code>String</code>\x20method\x20that\x20formats\x20this\x20line\x20of\x20output,\x20so\x0athat\x20the\x20default\x20format\x20is\x20equivalent\x20to\x20<code>-f\x20'{{.String}}'</code>.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20when\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20been\x20replaced,\x20its\x20<code>Replace</code>\x20field\x20describes\x20the\x0areplacement\x20module\x20module,\x20and\x20its\x20<code>Dir</code>\x20field\x20is\x20set\x20to\x20the\x20replacement\x0amodule's\x20source\x20code,\x20if\x20present.\x20(That\x20is,\x20if\x20<code>Replace</code>\x20is\x20non-nil,\x20then\x20<code>Dir</code>\x0ais\x20set\x20to\x20<code>Replace.Dir</code>,\x20with\x20no\x20access\x20to\x20the\x20replaced\x20source\x20code.)</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-u</code>\x20flag\x20adds\x20information\x20about\x20available\x20upgrades.\x20When\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x0aof\x20a\x20given\x20module\x20is\x20newer\x20than\x20the\x20current\x20one,\x20<code>list\x20-u</code>\x20sets\x20the\x20module's\x0a<code>Update</code>\x20field\x20to\x20information\x20about\x20the\x20newer\x20module.\x20The\x20module's\x20<code>String</code>\x0amethod\x20indicates\x20an\x20available\x20upgrade\x20by\x20formatting\x20the\x20newer\x20version\x20in\x0abrackets\x20after\x20the\x20current\x20version.\x20For\x20example,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-u\x20all</code>\x20might\x0aprint:</p>\x0a<pre><code>example.com/main/module\x0agolang.org/x/text\x20v0.3.0\x20[v0.4.0]\x20=&gt;\x20/tmp/text\x0arsc.io/pdf\x20v0.1.1\x20[v0.1.2]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>(For\x20tools,\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-u\x20-json\x20all</code>\x20may\x20be\x20more\x20convenient\x20to\x20parse.)</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-versions</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>list</code>\x20to\x20set\x20the\x20module's\x20<code>Versions</code>\x20field\x20to\x20a\x0alist\x20of\x20all\x20known\x20versions\x20of\x20that\x20module,\x20ordered\x20according\x20to\x20semantic\x0aversioning,\x20lowest\x20to\x20highest.\x20The\x20flag\x20also\x20changes\x20the\x20default\x20output\x20format\x0ato\x20display\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20followed\x20by\x20the\x20space-separated\x20version\x20list.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20template\x20function\x20<code>module</code>\x20takes\x20a\x20single\x20string\x20argument\x20that\x20must\x20be\x20a\x0amodule\x20path\x20or\x20query\x20and\x20returns\x20the\x20specified\x20module\x20as\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct.\x20If\x0aan\x20error\x20occurs,\x20the\x20result\x20will\x20be\x20a\x20<code>Module</code>\x20struct\x20with\x20a\x20non-nil\x20<code>Error</code>\x0afield.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-download\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20download</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20download\x20[-json]\x20[-x]\x20[modules]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20mod\x20download\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20download\x20golang.org/x/mod@v0.2.0\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20download</code>\x20command\x20downloads\x20the\x20named\x20modules\x20into\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x0acache</a>.\x20Arguments\x20can\x20be\x20module\x20paths\x20or\x20module\x0apatterns\x20selecting\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20or\x20<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">version\x0aqueries</a>\x20of\x20the\x20form\x20<code>path@version</code>.\x20With\x20no\x20arguments,\x0a<code>download</code>\x20applies\x20to\x20all\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20automatically\x20download\x20modules\x20as\x20needed\x20during\x20ordinary\x0aexecution.\x20The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20download</code>\x20command\x20is\x20useful\x20mainly\x20for\x20pre-filling\x20the\x0amodule\x20cache\x20or\x20for\x20loading\x20data\x20to\x20be\x20served\x20by\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-proxy\">module\x0aproxy</a>.</p>\x0a<p>By\x20default,\x20<code>download</code>\x20writes\x20nothing\x20to\x20standard\x20output.\x20It\x20prints\x20progress\x0amessages\x20and\x20errors\x20to\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-json</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>download</code>\x20to\x20print\x20a\x20sequence\x20of\x20JSON\x20objects\x20to\x0astandard\x20output,\x20describing\x20each\x20downloaded\x20module\x20(or\x20failure),\x20corresponding\x0ato\x20this\x20Go\x20struct:</p>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20module\x20path\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20\x20string\x20//\x20module\x20version\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Error\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20error\x20loading\x20module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Info\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.info\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoMod\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.mod\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Zip\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20.zip\x20file\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Dir\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20absolute\x20path\x20to\x20cached\x20source\x20root\x20directory\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20Sum\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x20//\x20checksum\x20for\x20path,\x20version\x20(as\x20in\x20go.sum)\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20GoModSum\x20string\x20//\x20checksum\x20for\x20go.mod\x20(as\x20in\x20go.sum)\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-x</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>download</code>\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20commands\x20<code>download</code>\x20executes\x0ato\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-edit\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20[editing\x20flags]\x20[-fmt|-print|-json]\x20[go.mod]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Add\x20a\x20replace\x20directive.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-replace\x20example.com/a@v1.0.0=./a\x0a\x0a#\x20Remove\x20a\x20replace\x20directive.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-dropreplace\x20example.com/a@v1.0.0\x0a\x0a#\x20Set\x20the\x20go\x20version,\x20add\x20a\x20requirement,\x20and\x20print\x20the\x20file\x0a#\x20instead\x20of\x20writing\x20it\x20to\x20disk.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-go=1.14\x20-require=example.com/m@v1.0.0\x20-print\x0a\x0a#\x20Format\x20the\x20go.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-fmt\x0a\x0a#\x20Format\x20and\x20print\x20a\x20different\x20.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-print\x20tools.mod\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20a\x20JSON\x20representation\x20of\x20the\x20go.mod\x20file.\x0a$\x20go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-json\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20command\x20provides\x20a\x20command-line\x20interface\x20for\x20editing\x20and\x0aformatting\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files,\x20for\x20use\x20primarily\x20by\x20tools\x20and\x20scripts.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x0areads\x20only\x20one\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file;\x20it\x20does\x20not\x20look\x20up\x20information\x20about\x20other\x0amodules.\x20By\x20default,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20reads\x20and\x20writes\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20of\x20the\x0amain\x20module,\x20but\x20a\x20different\x20target\x20file\x20can\x20be\x20specified\x20after\x20the\x20editing\x0aflags.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20editing\x20flags\x20specify\x20a\x20sequence\x20of\x20editing\x20operations.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-module</code>\x20flag\x20changes\x20the\x20module's\x20path\x20(the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file's\x20module\x0aline).</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-go=version</code>\x20flag\x20sets\x20the\x20expected\x20Go\x20language\x20version.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-require=path@version</code>\x20and\x20<code>-droprequire=path</code>\x20flags\x20add\x20and\x20drop\x20a\x0arequirement\x20on\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>-require</code>\x0aoverrides\x20any\x20existing\x20requirements\x20on\x20<code>path</code>.\x20These\x20flags\x20are\x20mainly\x20for\x0atools\x20that\x20understand\x20the\x20module\x20graph.\x20Users\x20should\x20prefer\x20<code>go\x20get\x20path@version</code>\x20or\x20<code>go\x20get\x20path@none</code>,\x20which\x20make\x20other\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20adjustments\x20as\x0aneeded\x20to\x20satisfy\x20constraints\x20imposed\x20by\x20other\x20modules.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-get\"><code>go\x20get</code></a>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-exclude=path@version</code>\x20and\x20<code>-dropexclude=path@version</code>\x20flags\x20add\x20and\x20drop\x0aan\x20exclusion\x20for\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x20and\x20version.\x20Note\x20that\x0a<code>-exclude=path@version</code>\x20is\x20a\x20no-op\x20if\x20that\x20exclusion\x20already\x20exists.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-replace=old[@v]=new[@v]</code>\x20flag\x20adds\x20a\x20replacement\x20of\x20the\x20given\x20module\x0apath\x20and\x20version\x20pair.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20in\x20<code>old@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20a\x20replacement\x0awithout\x20a\x20version\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x20is\x20added,\x20which\x20applies\x20to\x20all\x20versions\x20of\x0athe\x20old\x20module\x20path.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20in\x20<code>new@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20the\x20new\x20path\x20should\x20be\x0aa\x20local\x20module\x20root\x20directory,\x20not\x20a\x20module\x20path.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>-replace</code>\x0aoverrides\x20any\x20redundant\x20replacements\x20for\x20<code>old[@v]</code>,\x20so\x20omitting\x20<code>@v</code>\x20will\x20drop\x0areplacements\x20for\x20specific\x20versions.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-dropreplace=old[@v]</code>\x20flag\x20drops\x20a\x20replacement\x20of\x20the\x20given\x20module\x20path\x0aand\x20version\x20pair.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20is\x20provided,\x20a\x20replacement\x20with\x20the\x20given\x0aversion\x20is\x20dropped.\x20An\x20existing\x20replacement\x20without\x20a\x20version\x20on\x20the\x20left\x20side\x0amay\x20still\x20replace\x20the\x20module.\x20If\x20the\x20<code>@v</code>\x20is\x20omitted,\x20a\x20replacement\x20without\x20a\x0aversion\x20is\x20dropped.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>The\x20editing\x20flags\x20may\x20be\x20repeated.\x20The\x20changes\x20are\x20applied\x20in\x20the\x20order\x20given.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20has\x20additional\x20flags\x20that\x20control\x20its\x20output.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-fmt</code>\x20flag\x20reformats\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20without\x20making\x20other\x20changes.\x0aThis\x20reformatting\x20is\x20also\x20implied\x20by\x20any\x20other\x20modifications\x20that\x20use\x20or\x0arewrite\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20The\x20only\x20time\x20this\x20flag\x20is\x20needed\x20is\x20if\x20no\x0aother\x20flags\x20are\x20specified,\x20as\x20in\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-fmt</code>.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-print</code>\x20flag\x20prints\x20the\x20final\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20its\x20text\x20format\x20instead\x20of\x0awriting\x20it\x20back\x20to\x20disk.</li>\x0a<li>The\x20<code>-json</code>\x20flag\x20prints\x20the\x20final\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20in\x20JSON\x20format\x20instead\x20of\x20writing\x0ait\x20back\x20to\x20disk\x20in\x20text\x20format.\x20The\x20JSON\x20output\x20corresponds\x20to\x20these\x20Go\x20types:</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<pre><code>type\x20Module\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20string\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20GoMod\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Module\x20\x20Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Go\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Require\x20[]Require\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Exclude\x20[]Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Replace\x20[]Replace\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20Require\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Path\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Version\x20string\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Indirect\x20bool\x0a}\x0a\x0atype\x20Replace\x20struct\x20{\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20Old\x20Module\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20New\x20Module\x0a}\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20this\x20only\x20describes\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20itself,\x20not\x20other\x20modules\x0areferred\x20to\x20indirectly.\x20For\x20the\x20full\x20set\x20of\x20modules\x20available\x20to\x20a\x20build,\x0ause\x20<code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20all</code>.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>.</p>\x0a<p>For\x20example,\x20a\x20tool\x20can\x20obtain\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20as\x20a\x20data\x20structure\x20by\x0aparsing\x20the\x20output\x20of\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20edit\x20-json</code>\x20and\x20can\x20then\x20make\x20changes\x20by\x20invoking\x0a<code>go\x20mod\x20edit</code>\x20with\x20<code>-require</code>,\x20<code>-exclude</code>,\x20and\x20so\x20on.</p>\x0a<p>Tools\x20may\x20also\x20use\x20the\x20package\x0a<a\x20href=\"https://pkg.go.dev/golang.org/x/mod/modfile?tab=doc\"><code>golang.org/x/mod/modfile</code></a>\x0ato\x20parse,\x20edit,\x20and\x20format\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20files.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-init\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20init</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20init\x20[module-path]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20init\x0ago\x20mod\x20init\x20example.com/m\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20init</code>\x20command\x20initializes\x20and\x20writes\x20a\x20new\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20in\x20the\x0acurrent\x20directory,\x20in\x20effect\x20creating\x20a\x20new\x20module\x20rooted\x20at\x20the\x20current\x0adirectory.\x20The\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20must\x20not\x20already\x20exist.</p>\x0a<p><code>init</code>\x20accepts\x20one\x20optional\x20argument,\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-path\">module\x20path</a>\x20for\x0athe\x20new\x20module.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#module-path\">Module\x20paths</a>\x20for\x20instructions\x20on\x20choosing\x0aa\x20module\x20path.\x20If\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20argument\x20is\x20omitted,\x20<code>init</code>\x20will\x20attempt\x0ato\x20infer\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20using\x20import\x20comments\x20in\x20<code>.go</code>\x20files,\x20vendoring\x20tool\x0aconfiguration\x20files,\x20and\x20the\x20current\x20directory\x20(if\x20in\x20<code>GOPATH</code>).</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20configuration\x20file\x20for\x20a\x20vendoring\x20tool\x20is\x20present,\x20<code>init</code>\x20will\x20attempt\x20to\x0aimport\x20module\x20requirements\x20from\x20it.\x20<code>init</code>\x20supports\x20the\x20following\x20configuration\x0afiles.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><code>GLOCKFILE</code>\x20(Glock)</li>\x0a<li><code>Godeps/Godeps.json</code>\x20(Godeps)</li>\x0a<li><code>Gopkg.lock</code>\x20(dep)</li>\x0a<li><code>dependencies.tsv</code>\x20(godeps)</li>\x0a<li><code>glide.lock</code>\x20(glide)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor.conf</code>\x20(trash)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor.yml</code>\x20(govend)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor/manifest</code>\x20(gvt)</li>\x0a<li><code>vendor/vendor.json</code>\x20(govendor)</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p>Vendoring\x20tool\x20configuration\x20files\x20can't\x20always\x20be\x20translated\x20with\x20perfect\x0afidelity.\x20For\x20example,\x20if\x20multiple\x20packages\x20within\x20the\x20same\x20repository\x20are\x0aimported\x20at\x20different\x20versions,\x20and\x20the\x20repository\x20only\x20contains\x20one\x20module,\x20the\x0aimported\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20can\x20only\x20require\x20the\x20module\x20at\x20one\x20version.\x20You\x20may\x20wish\x20to\x0arun\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>\x20to\x20check\x20all\x20versions\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x0alist</a>,\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20to\x20add\x20missing\x0arequirements\x20and\x20to\x20drop\x20unused\x20requirements.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-tidy\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy\x20[-v]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20ensures\x20that\x20the\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20matches\x20the\x20source\x20code\x20in\x20the\x0amodule.\x20It\x20adds\x20any\x20missing\x20module\x20requirements\x20necessary\x20to\x20build\x20the\x20current\x0amodule's\x20packages\x20and\x20dependencies,\x20and\x20it\x20removes\x20requirements\x20on\x20modules\x20that\x0adon't\x20provide\x20any\x20relevant\x20packages.\x20It\x20also\x20adds\x20any\x20missing\x20entries\x20to\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20and\x20removes\x20unnecessary\x20entries.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20to\x20print\x20information\x20about\x20removed\x20modules\x0ato\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20works\x20by\x20loading\x20all\x20of\x20the\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule</a>\x20and\x20all\x20of\x20the\x20packages\x20they\x20import,\x0arecursively.\x20This\x20includes\x20packages\x20imported\x20by\x20tests\x20(including\x20tests\x20in\x20other\x0amodules).\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20acts\x20as\x20if\x20all\x20build\x20tags\x20are\x20enabled,\x20so\x20it\x20will\x0aconsider\x20platform-specific\x20source\x20files\x20and\x20files\x20that\x20require\x20custom\x20build\x0atags,\x20even\x20if\x20those\x20source\x20files\x20wouldn't\x20normally\x20be\x20built.\x20There\x20is\x20one\x0aexception:\x20the\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20build\x20tag\x20is\x20not\x20enabled,\x20so\x20a\x20file\x20with\x20the\x20build\x0aconstraint\x20<code>//\x20+build\x20ignore</code>\x20will\x20not\x20be\x20considered.\x20Note\x20that\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x0awill\x20not\x20consider\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20in\x20directories\x20named\x20<code>testdata</code>\x20or\x0awith\x20names\x20that\x20start\x20with\x20<code>.</code>\x20or\x20<code>_</code>\x20unless\x20those\x20packages\x20are\x20explicitly\x0aimported\x20by\x20other\x20packages.</p>\x0a<p>Once\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20has\x20loaded\x20this\x20set\x20of\x20packages,\x20it\x20ensures\x20that\x20each\x20module\x0athat\x20provides\x20one\x20or\x20more\x20packages\x20either\x20has\x20a\x20<code>require</code>\x20directive\x20in\x20the\x20main\x0amodule's\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file\x20or\x20is\x20required\x20by\x20another\x20required\x20module.\x20\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x0awill\x20add\x20a\x20requirement\x20on\x20the\x20latest\x20version\x20on\x20each\x20missing\x20module\x20(see\x0a<a\x20href=\"#version-queries\">Version\x20queries</a>\x20for\x20the\x20definition\x20of\x20the\x20<code>latest</code>\x0aversion).\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20will\x20remove\x20<code>require</code>\x20directives\x20for\x20modules\x20that\x20don't\x0aprovide\x20any\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20set\x20described\x20above.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code>\x20may\x20also\x20add\x20or\x20remove\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comments\x20on\x20<code>require</code>\x0adirectives.\x20An\x20<code>//\x20indirect</code>\x20comment\x20denotes\x20a\x20module\x20that\x20does\x20not\x20provide\x0apackages\x20imported\x20by\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20These\x20requirements\x20will\x20be\x0apresent\x20if\x20the\x20module\x20that\x20imports\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20has\x0ano\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20file.\x20They\x20may\x20also\x20be\x20present\x20if\x20the\x20indirect\x20dependency\x20is\x0arequired\x20at\x20a\x20higher\x20version\x20than\x20is\x20implied\x20by\x20the\x20module\x20graph;\x20this\x20usually\x0ahappens\x20after\x20running\x20a\x20command\x20like\x20<code>go\x20get\x20-u\x20./...</code>.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-vendor\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor\x20[-v]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20command\x20constructs\x20a\x20directory\x20named\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule's</a>\x20root\x20directory\x20that\x20contains\x20copies\x20of\x20all\x20packages\x0aneeded\x20to\x20support\x20builds\x20and\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module.\x20Packages\x0athat\x20are\x20only\x20imported\x20by\x20tests\x20of\x20packages\x20outside\x20the\x20main\x20module\x20are\x20not\x0aincluded.\x20As\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-tidy\"><code>go\x20mod\x20tidy</code></a>\x20and\x20other\x20module\x20commands,\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-constraint\">build\x20constraints</a>\x20except\x20for\x20<code>ignore</code>\x20are\x20not\x0aconsidered\x20when\x20constructing\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory.</p>\x0a<p>When\x20vendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20will\x20load\x20packages\x20from\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x0adirectory\x20instead\x20of\x20downloading\x20modules\x20from\x20their\x20sources\x20into\x20the\x20module\x0acache\x20and\x20using\x20packages\x20those\x20downloaded\x20copies.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#vendoring\">Vendoring</a>\x0afor\x20more\x20information.</p>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20also\x20creates\x20the\x20file\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20that\x20contains\x20a\x20list\x0aof\x20vendored\x20packages\x20and\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20they\x20were\x20copied\x20from.\x20When\x0avendoring\x20is\x20enabled,\x20this\x20manifest\x20is\x20used\x20as\x20a\x20source\x20of\x20module\x20version\x0ainformation,\x20as\x20reported\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m</code></a>\x20and\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-version-m\"><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></a>.\x20When\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20reads\x20<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>,\x20it\x20checks\x0athat\x20the\x20module\x20versions\x20are\x20consistent\x20with\x20<code>go.mod</code>.\x20If\x20<code>go.mod</code>\x20changed\x20since\x0a<code>vendor/modules.txt</code>\x20was\x20generated,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20should\x20be\x20run\x20again.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20removes\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20if\x20it\x20exists\x20before\x0are-constructing\x20it.\x20Local\x20changes\x20should\x20not\x20be\x20made\x20to\x20vendored\x20packages.\x0aThe\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20does\x20not\x20check\x20that\x20packages\x20in\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x20have\x0anot\x20been\x20modified,\x20but\x20one\x20can\x20verify\x20the\x20integrity\x20of\x20the\x20<code>vendor</code>\x20directory\x0aby\x20running\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20and\x20checking\x20that\x20no\x20changes\x20were\x20made.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20vendor</code>\x20to\x20print\x20the\x20names\x20of\x20vendored\x20modules\x0aand\x20packages\x20to\x20standard\x20error.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-mod-verify\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20mod\x20verify\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20that\x20dependencies\x20of\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x20module</a>\x0astored\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x20cache</a>\x20have\x20not\x20been\x20modified\x20since\x0athey\x20were\x20downloaded.\x20To\x20perform\x20this\x20check,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20hashes\x20each\x0adownloaded\x20module\x20<a\x20href=\"#zip-files\"><code>.zip</code>\x20file</a>\x20and\x20extracted\x20directory,\x20then\x0acompares\x20those\x20hashes\x20with\x20a\x20hash\x20recorded\x20when\x20the\x20module\x20was\x20first\x0adownloaded.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20each\x20module\x20in\x20the\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-build-list\">build\x0alist</a>\x20(which\x20may\x20be\x20printed\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-list-m\"><code>go\x20list\x20-m\x20all</code></a>).</p>\x0a<p>If\x20all\x20the\x20modules\x20are\x20unmodified,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20prints\x20&quot;all\x20modules\x0averified&quot;.\x20Otherwise,\x20it\x20reports\x20which\x20modules\x20have\x20been\x20changed\x20and\x20exits\x20with\x0aa\x20non-zero\x20status.</p>\x0a<p>Note\x20that\x20all\x20module-aware\x20commands\x20verify\x20that\x20hashes\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20file\x20match\x20hashes\x20recorded\x20for\x20modules\x20downloaded\x20into\x20the\x20module\x0acache.\x20If\x20a\x20hash\x20is\x20missing\x20from\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20(for\x20example,\x20because\x20the\x20module\x20is\x0abeing\x20used\x20for\x20the\x20first\x20time),\x20the\x20<code>go</code>\x20command\x20verifies\x20its\x20hash\x20using\x20the\x0a<a\x20href=\"#checksum-database\">checksum\x20database</a>\x20(unless\x20the\x20module\x20path\x20is\x20matched\x20by\x0a<code>GOPRIVATE</code>\x20or\x20<code>GONOSUMDB</code>).\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#authenticating\">Authenticating\x20modules</a>\x20for\x0adetails.</p>\x0a<p>In\x20contrast,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20checks\x20that\x20module\x20<code>.zip</code>\x20files\x20and\x20their\x20extracted\x0adirectories\x20have\x20hashes\x20that\x20match\x20hashes\x20recorded\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20when\x20they\x0awere\x20first\x20downloaded.\x20This\x20is\x20useful\x20for\x20detecting\x20changes\x20to\x20files\x20in\x20the\x0amodule\x20cache\x20<em>after</em>\x20a\x20module\x20has\x20been\x20downloaded\x20and\x20verified.\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x0adoes\x20not\x20download\x20content\x20for\x20modules\x20not\x20in\x20the\x20cache,\x20and\x20it\x20does\x20not\x20use\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20files\x20to\x20verify\x20module\x20content.\x20However,\x20<code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code>\x20may\x20download\x0a<code>go.mod</code>\x20files\x20in\x20order\x20to\x20perform\x20<a\x20href=\"#minimal-version-selection\">minimal\x20version\x0aselection</a>.\x20It\x20will\x20use\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20to\x20verify\x20those\x0afiles,\x20and\x20it\x20may\x20add\x20<code>go.sum</code>\x20entries\x20for\x20missing\x20hashes.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-version-m\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20version\x20-m</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20version\x20[-m]\x20[-v]\x20[file\x20...]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>Example:</p>\x0a<pre><code>#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20go.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20specific\x20executable.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20~/go/bin/gopls\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20and\x20module\x20versions\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20a\x20specific\x20executable.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/gopls\x0a\x0a#\x20Print\x20Go\x20version\x20and\x20module\x20versions\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20executables\x20in\x20a\x20directory.\x0a$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>go\x20version</code>\x20reports\x20the\x20Go\x20version\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20each\x20executable\x20file\x20named\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20no\x20files\x20are\x20named\x20on\x20the\x20command\x20line,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20prints\x20its\x20own\x20version\x0ainformation.</p>\x0a<p>If\x20a\x20directory\x20is\x20named,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20walks\x20that\x20directory,\x20recursively,\x20looking\x0afor\x20recognized\x20Go\x20binaries\x20and\x20reporting\x20their\x20versions.\x20By\x20default,\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20does\x20not\x20report\x20unrecognized\x20files\x20found\x20during\x20a\x20directory\x20scan.\x20The\x0a<code>-v</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20it\x20to\x20report\x20unrecognized\x20files.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-m</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<code>go\x20version</code>\x20to\x20print\x20each\x20executable's\x20embedded\x20module\x0aversion\x20information,\x20when\x20available.\x20For\x20each\x20executable,\x20<code>go\x20version\x20-m</code>\x20prints\x0aa\x20table\x20with\x20tab-separated\x20columns\x20like\x20the\x20one\x20below.</p>\x0a<pre><code>$\x20go\x20version\x20-m\x20~/go/bin/goimports\x0a/home/jrgopher/go/bin/goimports:\x20go1.14.3\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20path\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/tools/cmd/goimports\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20mod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/tools\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.0.0-20200518203908-8018eb2c26ba\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:0Lcy64USfQQL6GAJma8BdHCgeofcchQj+Z7j0SXYAzU=\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20dep\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/mod\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.2.0\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:KU7oHjnv3XNWfa5COkzUifxZmxp1TyI7ImMXqFxLwvQ=\x0a\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20dep\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20golang.org/x/xerrors\x20\x20\x20\x20v0.0.0-20191204190536-9bdfabe68543\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20h1:E7g+9GITq07hpfrRu66IVDexMakfv52eLZ2CXBWiKr4=\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20format\x20of\x20the\x20table\x20may\x20change\x20in\x20the\x20future.\x20The\x20same\x20information\x20may\x20be\x0aobtained\x20from\x0a<a\x20href=\"https://pkg.go.dev/runtime/debug?tab=doc#ReadBuildInfo\"><code>runtime/debug.ReadBuildInfo</code></a>.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20meaning\x20of\x20each\x20row\x20in\x20the\x20table\x20is\x20determined\x20by\x20the\x20word\x20in\x20the\x20first\x0acolumn.</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li><strong><code>path</code></strong>:\x20the\x20path\x20of\x20the\x20<code>main</code>\x20package\x20used\x20to\x20build\x20the\x20executable.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>mod</code></strong>:\x20the\x20module\x20containing\x20the\x20<code>main</code>\x20package.\x20The\x20columns\x20are\x20the\x0amodule\x20path,\x20version,\x20and\x20sum,\x20respectively.\x20The\x20<a\x20href=\"#glos-main-module\">main\x0amodule</a>\x20has\x20the\x20version\x20<code>(devel)</code>\x20and\x20no\x20sum.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>dep</code></strong>:\x20a\x20module\x20that\x20provided\x20one\x20or\x20more\x20packages\x20linked\x20into\x20the\x0aexecutable.\x20Same\x20format\x20as\x20<code>mod</code>.</li>\x0a<li><strong><code>=&gt;</code></strong>:\x20a\x20<a\x20href=\"#go.mod-replace\">replacement</a>\x20for\x20the\x20module\x20on\x20the\x20previous\x0aline.\x20If\x20the\x20replacement\x20is\x20a\x20local\x20directory,\x20only\x20the\x20directory\x20path\x20is\x0alisted\x20(no\x20version\x20or\x20sum).\x20If\x20the\x20replacement\x20is\x20a\x20module\x20version,\x20the\x20path,\x0aversion,\x20and\x20sum\x20are\x20listed,\x20as\x20with\x20<code>mod</code>\x20and\x20<code>dep</code>.\x20A\x20replaced\x20module\x20has\x0ano\x20sum.</li>\x0a</ul>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"go-clean-modcache\"></a></p>\x0a<h3><code>go\x20clean\x20-modcache</code></h3>\x0a<p>Usage:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20clean\x20[-modcache]\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-modcache</code>\x20flag\x20causes\x20<a\x20href=\"/cmd/go/#hdr-Remove_object_files_and_cached_files\"><code>go\x20clean</code></a>\x20to\x20remove\x20the\x20entire\x0a<a\x20href=\"#glos-module-cache\">module\x20cache</a>,\x20including\x20unpacked\x20source\x20code\x20of\x20versioned\x0adependencies.</p>\x0a<p>This\x20is\x20usually\x20the\x20best\x20way\x20to\x20remove\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20By\x20default,\x20most\x20files\x0aand\x20directories\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20are\x20read-only\x20to\x20prevent\x20tests\x20and\x20editors\x0afrom\x20unintentionally\x20changing\x20files\x20after\x20they've\x20been\x0a<a\x20href=\"#authenticating\">authenticated</a>.\x20Unfortunately,\x20this\x20causes\x20commands\x20like\x0a<code>rm\x20-r</code>\x20to\x20fail,\x20since\x20files\x20can't\x20be\x20removed\x20without\x20first\x20making\x20their\x20parent\x0adirectories\x20writable.</p>\x0a<p>The\x20<code>-modcacherw</code>\x20flag\x20(accepted\x20by\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Compile_packages_and_dependencies\"><code>go\x20build</code></a>\x20and\x0aother\x20module-aware\x20commands)\x20causes\x20new\x20directories\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache\x20to\x0abe\x20writable.\x20To\x20pass\x20<code>-modcacherw</code>\x20to\x20all\x20module-aware\x20commands,\x20add\x20it\x20to\x20the\x0a<code>GOFLAGS</code>\x20variable.\x20<code>GOFLAGS</code>\x20may\x20be\x20set\x20in\x20the\x20environment\x20or\x20with\x20<a\x20href=\"https://golang.org/cmd/go/#hdr-Print_Go_environment_information\"><code>go\x20env\x20-w</code></a>.\x20For\x0aexample,\x20the\x20command\x20below\x20sets\x20it\x20permanently:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20env\x20-w\x20GOFLAGS=-modcacherw\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p><code>-modcacherw</code>\x20should\x20be\x20used\x20with\x20caution;\x20developers\x20should\x20be\x20careful\x20not\x0ato\x20make\x20changes\x20to\x20files\x20in\x20the\x20module\x20cache.\x20<a\x20href=\"#go-mod-verify\"><code>go\x20mod\x20verify</code></a>\x0amay\x20be\x20used\x20to\x20check\x20that\x20files\x20in\x20the\x20cache\x20match\x20hashes\x20in\x20the\x20main\x20module's\x0a<code>go.sum</code>\x20file.</p>\x0a<p><a\x20id=\"version-queries\"></a></p>\x0a<h3>Version\x20queries</h3>\x0a<p>Several\x20commands\x20allow\x20you\x20to\x20specify\x20a\x20version\x20of\x20a\x20module\x20using\x20a\x20<em>version\x0aquery</em>,\x20which\x20appears\x20after\x20an\x20<code>@</code>\x20character\x20following\x20a\x20module\x20or\x20package\x20path\x0aon\x20the\x20command\x20line.</p>\x0a<p>Examples:</p>\x0a<pre><code>go\x20get\x20example.com/m@latest\x0ago\x20mod\x20download\x20example.com/m@master\x0ago\x20list\x20-m\x20-json\x20example.com/m@e3702bed2\x0a</code></pre>\x0a<p>A\x20version\x20query\x20may\x20be\x20one\x20of\x20the\x20following:</p>\x0a<ul>\x0a<li>A\x20fully-specified\x20semantic\x20version,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>v1.2.3</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x20a\x0aspecific\x20version.\x20See\x20<a\x20href=\"#versions\">Versions</a>\x20for\x20syntax.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20semantic\x20version\x20prefix,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>v1</code>\x20or\x20<code>v1.2</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x20the\x20highest\x0aavailable\x20version\x20with\x20that\x20prefix.</li>\x0a<li>A\x20semantic\x20version\x20comparison,\x20such\x20as\x20<code>&lt;v1.2.3</code>\x20or\x20<code>&gt;=v1.5.6</code>,\x20which\x20selects\x0athe\x20nearest\x20available\x20version\x20to\x20the\x20comparison\x20target\x20(the\x20lowest\x20version\x0afor\x20<code>&gt;</code>\x20and\x20<code>&gt;=</code>,\x20and\x20the\x20highest\x20version\x20for\x20<code>&lt;</code>\x20and\x20<code>&lt;=</code>).</li>\x0a<li>A\x20revision\x20identifier\x2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 }