Proposal: Permit embedding of interfaces with overlapping method sets

Author: Robert Griesemer

Last update: 2019-07-30

Discussion at


We propose to change the language spec such that embedded interfaces may have overlapping method sets.


An interface specifies a method set. One constraint on method sets is that when specifying an interface, each interface method must have a unique non-blank name.

For methods that are explicitly declared in the interface, this constraint has served us well. There is little reason to explicitly declare the same method more than once in an interface; doing so is at best confusing and likely a typo or copy-paste bug.

But it is easy for multiple embedded interfaces to declare the same method. For example, we might want to (but cannot today) write:

	type ReadWriteCloser interface {

This phrasing is invalid Go because it adds the same Close method to the interface twice, breaking the uniqueness constraint.

Definitions in which embedding breaks the uniqueness constraint arise naturally for various reasons, including embedded interfaces not under programmer control, diamond-shaped interface embeddings, and other valid design choices; see the discussion below and issue #6977 for examples. In general it may not be possible or reasonable to ensure that embedded interfaces do not have overlapping method sets. Today, the only recourse in this situation is to fall back to spelling out the interfaces one method at a time, creating duplication and potential for drift between definitions.

Allowing methods contributed by embedded interfaces to duplicate other methods in the interface would make these natural definitions valid Go, with no runtime implication and only trivial compiler changes.


Currently, in the section on Interface types, the language specification states:

An interface T may use a (possibly qualified) interface type name E in place of a method specification. This is called embedding interface E in T; it adds all (exported and non-exported) methods of E to the interface T.

We propose to change this to:

An interface T may use a (possibly qualified) interface type name E in place of a method specification. This is called embedding interface E in T. The method set of the resulting interface T is the union of the method set of T’s explicitly declared methods and the method sets of all of T’s embedded interfaces.

And to add the following paragraph:

The union of two method sets A and B is the method set containing each method of A and B exactly once. If a method in A has the same name as a method in B, both these methods must have identical signatures.

Alternatively, this new paragraph could be added to the section on Method sets.


A more restricted approach might disallow embedded interfaces from overlapping with the method set defined by the explicitly declared methods of the embedding interface since it is always possible to not declare those “extra” methods. Or in other words, one can always remove explicitly declared methods if they are added via an embedded interface. We believe that would make this language change less robust. For example, consider a hypothetical database API for holding personnel data. A person’s record might be accessible through an interface:

type Person interface {
	Name() string
	Age() int

A client might have a more specific implementation storing employees, which are also Persons:

type Employee interface {
	Level() int
	String() string

An Employee happens to have a String method to ease debugging. If the underlying DB API changes and somebody adds a String method to Person, the Employee interface would become invalid, because now String would be a duplicated method in Employee. To make it work again, one would have to remove the String method from the Employee interface.

Changing the language to ignore duplicated methods that arise from embedding enables more graceful code evolution (in this case, Person adding a String method without breaking Employee).

Permitting method sets to overlap with the embedding interface is also a bit simpler to describe in the spec, which helps with keeping the added complexity small.

In summary, we believe that allowing interfaces to have overlapping method sets removes a pain point for many programmers without adding undue complexity to the language and at a minor cost in the implementation.


This is a backward-compatible language change; any valid existing program will remain valid. This proposal simply expands the set of interfaces that may be embedded in another interface.


The implementation requires:

  • Adjusting the compiler’s type-checker to allow overlapping embedded interfaces.
  • Adjusting go/types analogously.
  • Adjusting the Go spec as outlined earlier.
  • Adjusting gccgo accordingly (type-checker).
  • Testing the changes by adding new tests.

No library changes are required. In particular, reflect only allows listing the methods in an interface; it does not expose information about embedding or other details of the interface definition.

Robert Griesemer will do the spec and go/types changes including additional tests, and (probably) also the cmd/compile compiler changes. We aim to have all the changes ready at the start of the Go 1.14 cycle, around August 1, 2019.

Separately, Ian Lance Taylor will look into the gccgo changes, which is released according to a different schedule.

As noted in our “Go 2, here we come!” blog post, the development cycle will serve as a way to collect experience about these new features and feedback from (very) early adopters.

At the release freeze, November 1, we will revisit this proposed feature and decide whether to include it in Go 1.14.

Apendix: More examples

Starlark is a Python dialect implemented in Go. The base starlark.Value interface defines a set of methods that every value must implement, such as String, Type, and Truth, but additional interfaces define optional facets of a type. For example, a value x that satisfies the Iterable interface may be used in a for y in x statement, a value that satisfies HasFields may be used in a x.field expression, and a value that satisfies Mapping may be used in a variadic call f(**x). (Example from #6977.)

package starlark

type Value interface {
    String() string
    Type() string
    Truth() bool

type Mapping interface {
    Get(key Value) Value

type Iterable interface{
     Iterate() Iterator

Often a situation arises in which one needs to test whether a value satisfies two interfaces, such as an iterable mapping, but the Iterable and Mapping interfaces both embed the Value interface, and thus contain overlapping sets of methods.

package mypkg

type IterableMapping interface {
    starlark.Iterable // error: duplicate method String (et al)

With the proposed rule change, IterableMapping will become a valid type declaration.