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// Copyright 2012 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Package xsrftoken provides methods for generating and validating secure XSRF tokens.
package xsrftoken // import ""
import (
// Timeout is the duration for which XSRF tokens are valid.
// It is exported so clients may set cookie timeouts that match generated tokens.
const Timeout = 24 * time.Hour
// clean sanitizes a string for inclusion in a token by replacing all ":"s.
func clean(s string) string {
return strings.Replace(s, ":", "_", -1)
// Generate returns a URL-safe secure XSRF token that expires in 24 hours.
// key is a secret key for your application; it must be non-empty.
// userID is an optional unique identifier for the user.
// actionID is an optional action the user is taking (e.g. POSTing to a particular path).
func Generate(key, userID, actionID string) string {
return generateTokenAtTime(key, userID, actionID, time.Now())
// generateTokenAtTime is like Generate, but returns a token that expires 24 hours from now.
func generateTokenAtTime(key, userID, actionID string, now time.Time) string {
if len(key) == 0 {
panic("zero length xsrf secret key")
// Round time up and convert to milliseconds.
milliTime := (now.UnixNano() + 1e6 - 1) / 1e6
h := hmac.New(sha1.New, []byte(key))
fmt.Fprintf(h, "%s:%s:%d", clean(userID), clean(actionID), milliTime)
// Get the padded base64 string then removing the padding.
tok := string(h.Sum(nil))
tok = base64.URLEncoding.EncodeToString([]byte(tok))
tok = strings.TrimRight(tok, "=")
return fmt.Sprintf("%s:%d", tok, milliTime)
// Valid reports whether a token is a valid, unexpired token returned by Generate.
func Valid(token, key, userID, actionID string) bool {
return validTokenAtTime(token, key, userID, actionID, time.Now())
// validTokenAtTime reports whether a token is valid at the given time.
func validTokenAtTime(token, key, userID, actionID string, now time.Time) bool {
if len(key) == 0 {
panic("zero length xsrf secret key")
// Extract the issue time of the token.
sep := strings.LastIndex(token, ":")
if sep < 0 {
return false
millis, err := strconv.ParseInt(token[sep+1:], 10, 64)
if err != nil {
return false
issueTime := time.Unix(0, millis*1e6)
// Check that the token is not expired.
if now.Sub(issueTime) >= Timeout {
return false
// Check that the token is not from the future.
// Allow 1 minute grace period in case the token is being verified on a
// machine whose clock is behind the machine that issued the token.
if issueTime.After(now.Add(1 * time.Minute)) {
return false
expected := generateTokenAtTime(key, userID, actionID, issueTime)
// Check that the token matches the expected value.
// Use constant time comparison to avoid timing attacks.
return subtle.ConstantTimeCompare([]byte(token), []byte(expected)) == 1