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//===- GoNilChecks.cpp - Fold nil checks into memory accesses -----===//
// Part of the LLVM Project, under the Apache License v2.0 with LLVM Exceptions.
// See for license information.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
// This pass turns explicit null checks of the form
// test %r10, %r10
// je call_panic
// movl (%r10), %esi
// ...
// to
// movl (%r10), %esi
// ...
// With an exception table entry that covers the load/store instruction.
#include "GollvmPasses.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/ArrayRef.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/None.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/Optional.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/STLExtras.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/SmallVector.h"
#include "llvm/ADT/Statistic.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/AliasAnalysis.h"
#include "llvm/Analysis/MemoryLocation.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/FaultMaps.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineBasicBlock.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineFunction.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineFunctionPass.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineInstr.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineInstrBuilder.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineMemOperand.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineOperand.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/MachineRegisterInfo.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/PseudoSourceValue.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/TargetInstrInfo.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/TargetOpcodes.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/TargetRegisterInfo.h"
#include "llvm/CodeGen/TargetSubtargetInfo.h"
#include "llvm/IR/BasicBlock.h"
#include "llvm/IR/DebugLoc.h"
#include "llvm/IR/LLVMContext.h"
#include "llvm/MC/MCContext.h"
#include "llvm/MC/MCInstrDesc.h"
#include "llvm/MC/MCRegisterInfo.h"
#include "llvm/Pass.h"
#include "llvm/Support/CommandLine.h"
#include <cassert>
#include <cstdint>
#include <iterator>
using namespace llvm;
static cl::opt<bool> Disabled("disable-go-nil-check",
cl::desc("Disable Go implicit nil check pass"),
cl::init(false), cl::Hidden);
static cl::opt<int> PageSize("go-nil-check-page-size",
cl::desc("The page size of the target in bytes"),
cl::init(4096), cl::Hidden);
static cl::opt<unsigned> MaxInstsToConsider(
cl::desc("The max number of instructions to consider hoisting loads over "
"(the algorithm is quadratic over this number)"),
cl::Hidden, cl::init(8));
#define DEBUG_TYPE "go-nil-checks"
"Number of explicit null checks made implicit");
namespace {
class GoNilChecks : public MachineFunctionPass {
/// Return true if \c computeDependence can process \p MI.
static bool canHandle(const MachineInstr *MI);
/// Helper function for \c computeDependence. Return true if \p A
/// and \p B do not have any dependences between them, and can be
/// re-ordered without changing program semantics.
bool canReorder(const MachineInstr *A, const MachineInstr *B);
/// A data type for representing the result computed by \c
/// computeDependence. States whether it is okay to reorder the
/// instruction passed to \c computeDependence with at most one
/// dependency.
struct DependenceResult {
/// Can we actually re-order \p MI with \p Insts (see \c
/// computeDependence).
bool CanReorder;
/// If non-None, then an instruction in \p Insts that also must be
/// hoisted.
Optional<ArrayRef<MachineInstr *>::iterator> PotentialDependence;
/*implicit*/ DependenceResult(
bool CanReorder,
Optional<ArrayRef<MachineInstr *>::iterator> PotentialDependence)
: CanReorder(CanReorder), PotentialDependence(PotentialDependence) {
assert((!PotentialDependence || CanReorder) &&
"!CanReorder && PotentialDependence.hasValue() not allowed!");
/// Compute a result for the following question: can \p MI be
/// re-ordered from after \p Insts to before it.
/// \c canHandle should return true for all instructions in \p
/// Insts.
DependenceResult computeDependence(const MachineInstr *MI,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> Block);
/// Represents one null check that can be made implicit.
class NullCheck {
// The memory operation the null check can be folded into.
MachineInstr *MemOperation;
// The instruction actually doing the null check (Ptr != 0).
MachineInstr *CheckOperation;
// The block the check resides in.
MachineBasicBlock *CheckBlock;
// The block branched to if the pointer is non-null.
MachineBasicBlock *NotNullSucc;
// The block branched to if the pointer is null.
MachineBasicBlock *NullSucc;
// If this is non-null, then MemOperation has a dependency on this
// instruction; and it needs to be hoisted to execute before MemOperation.
MachineInstr *OnlyDependency;
explicit NullCheck(MachineInstr *memOperation, MachineInstr *checkOperation,
MachineBasicBlock *checkBlock,
MachineBasicBlock *notNullSucc,
MachineBasicBlock *nullSucc,
MachineInstr *onlyDependency)
: MemOperation(memOperation), CheckOperation(checkOperation),
CheckBlock(checkBlock), NotNullSucc(notNullSucc), NullSucc(nullSucc),
OnlyDependency(onlyDependency) {}
MachineInstr *getMemOperation() const { return MemOperation; }
MachineInstr *getCheckOperation() const { return CheckOperation; }
MachineBasicBlock *getCheckBlock() const { return CheckBlock; }
MachineBasicBlock *getNotNullSucc() const { return NotNullSucc; }
MachineBasicBlock *getNullSucc() const { return NullSucc; }
MachineInstr *getOnlyDependency() const { return OnlyDependency; }
const TargetInstrInfo *TII = nullptr;
const TargetRegisterInfo *TRI = nullptr;
AliasAnalysis *AA = nullptr;
MachineFrameInfo *MFI = nullptr;
bool analyzeBlockForNullChecks(MachineBasicBlock &MBB,
SmallVectorImpl<NullCheck> &NullCheckList);
void rewriteNullChecks(ArrayRef<NullCheck> NullCheckList);
void insertLandingPad(MachineInstr *FaultMI, MachineBasicBlock *FaultBB);
enum AliasResult {
/// Returns AR_NoAlias if \p MI memory operation does not alias with
/// \p PrevMI, AR_MayAlias if they may alias and AR_WillAliasEverything if
/// they may alias and any further memory operation may alias with \p PrevMI.
AliasResult areMemoryOpsAliased(const MachineInstr &MI,
const MachineInstr *PrevMI) const;
enum SuitabilityResult {
/// Return SR_Suitable if \p MI a memory operation that can be used to
/// implicitly null check the value in \p PointerReg, SR_Unsuitable if
/// \p MI cannot be used to null check and SR_Impossible if there is
/// no sense to continue lookup due to any other instruction will not be able
/// to be used. \p PrevInsts is the set of instruction seen since
/// the explicit null check on \p PointerReg.
SuitabilityResult isSuitableMemoryOp(const MachineInstr &MI,
unsigned PointerReg,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> PrevInsts);
/// Return true if \p FaultingMI can be hoisted from after the
/// instructions in \p InstsSeenSoFar to before them. Set \p Dependence to a
/// non-null value if we also need to (and legally can) hoist a depedency.
bool canHoistInst(MachineInstr *FaultingMI, unsigned PointerReg,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> InstsSeenSoFar,
MachineBasicBlock *NullSucc, MachineInstr *&Dependence);
static char ID;
GoNilChecks() : MachineFunctionPass(ID) {
bool runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction &MF) override;
void getAnalysisUsage(AnalysisUsage &AU) const override {
MachineFunctionProperties getRequiredProperties() const override {
return MachineFunctionProperties().set(
} // end anonymous namespace
bool GoNilChecks::canHandle(const MachineInstr *MI) {
if (MI->isCall() || MI->mayRaiseFPException() ||
return false;
auto IsRegMask = [](const MachineOperand &MO) { return MO.isRegMask(); };
assert(!llvm::any_of(MI->operands(), IsRegMask) &&
"Calls were filtered out above!");
auto IsUnordered = [](MachineMemOperand *MMO) { return MMO->isUnordered(); };
return llvm::all_of(MI->memoperands(), IsUnordered);
GoNilChecks::computeDependence(const MachineInstr *MI,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> Block) {
assert(llvm::all_of(Block, canHandle) && "Check this first!");
assert(!is_contained(Block, MI) && "Block must be exclusive of MI!");
Optional<ArrayRef<MachineInstr *>::iterator> Dep;
for (auto I = Block.begin(), E = Block.end(); I != E; ++I) {
if (canReorder(*I, MI))
if (Dep == None) {
// Found one possible dependency, keep track of it.
Dep = I;
} else {
// We found two dependencies, so bail out.
return {false, None};
return {true, Dep};
bool GoNilChecks::canReorder(const MachineInstr *A,
const MachineInstr *B) {
assert(canHandle(A) && canHandle(B) && "Precondition!");
// canHandle makes sure that we _can_ correctly analyze the dependencies
// between A and B here -- for instance, we should not be dealing with heap
// load-store dependencies here.
for (auto MOA : A->operands()) {
if (!(MOA.isReg() && MOA.getReg()))
unsigned RegA = MOA.getReg();
for (auto MOB : B->operands()) {
if (!(MOB.isReg() && MOB.getReg()))
unsigned RegB = MOB.getReg();
if (TRI->regsOverlap(RegA, RegB) && (MOA.isDef() || MOB.isDef()))
return false;
return true;
bool GoNilChecks::runOnMachineFunction(MachineFunction &MF) {
if (Disabled)
return false;
TII = MF.getSubtarget().getInstrInfo();
TRI = MF.getRegInfo().getTargetRegisterInfo();
MFI = &MF.getFrameInfo();
AA = &getAnalysis<AAResultsWrapperPass>().getAAResults();
SmallVector<NullCheck, 16> NullCheckList;
for (auto &MBB : MF)
analyzeBlockForNullChecks(MBB, NullCheckList);
if (!NullCheckList.empty())
return !NullCheckList.empty();
// Return true if any register aliasing \p Reg is live-in into \p MBB.
static bool AnyAliasLiveIn(const TargetRegisterInfo *TRI,
MachineBasicBlock *MBB, unsigned Reg) {
for (MCRegAliasIterator AR(Reg, TRI, /*IncludeSelf*/ true); AR.isValid();
if (MBB->isLiveIn(*AR))
return true;
return false;
GoNilChecks::areMemoryOpsAliased(const MachineInstr &MI,
const MachineInstr *PrevMI) const {
// If it is not memory access, skip the check.
if (!(PrevMI->mayStore() || PrevMI->mayLoad()))
return AR_NoAlias;
// Load-Load may alias
if (!(MI.mayStore() || PrevMI->mayStore()))
return AR_NoAlias;
// We lost info, conservatively alias. If it was store then no sense to
// continue because we won't be able to check against it further.
if (MI.memoperands_empty())
return MI.mayStore() ? AR_WillAliasEverything : AR_MayAlias;
if (PrevMI->memoperands_empty())
return PrevMI->mayStore() ? AR_WillAliasEverything : AR_MayAlias;
for (MachineMemOperand *MMO1 : MI.memoperands()) {
// Original code asserts MMO1->getValue() is not null. But it actually
// can be, e.g. in the call sequence of preparing a byval arg.
// It is very rare to get here, only when there is a store between the
// nil check and the load. Maybe we can do better, but just be
// conservative for now.
if (!MMO1->getValue())
return AR_MayAlias;
for (MachineMemOperand *MMO2 : PrevMI->memoperands()) {
if (const PseudoSourceValue *PSV = MMO2->getPseudoValue()) {
if (PSV->mayAlias(MFI))
return AR_MayAlias;
llvm::AliasResult AAResult =
AA->alias(MemoryLocation(MMO1->getValue(), LocationSize::unknown(),
MemoryLocation(MMO2->getValue(), LocationSize::unknown(),
if (AAResult != NoAlias)
return AR_MayAlias;
return AR_NoAlias;
GoNilChecks::isSuitableMemoryOp(const MachineInstr &MI,
unsigned PointerReg,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> PrevInsts) {
int64_t Offset;
const MachineOperand *BaseOp;
if (!TII->getMemOperandWithOffset(MI, BaseOp, Offset, TRI) ||
!BaseOp->isReg() || BaseOp->getReg() != PointerReg)
return SR_Unsuitable;
// We want the mem access to be issued at a sane offset from PointerReg,
// so that if PointerReg is null then the access reliably page faults.
if (!((MI.mayLoad() || MI.mayStore()) && !MI.isPredicable() &&
-PageSize < Offset && Offset < PageSize))
return SR_Unsuitable;
// Finally, check whether the current memory access aliases with previous one.
for (auto *PrevMI : PrevInsts) {
AliasResult AR = areMemoryOpsAliased(MI, PrevMI);
if (AR == AR_WillAliasEverything)
return SR_Impossible;
if (AR == AR_MayAlias)
return SR_Unsuitable;
return SR_Suitable;
bool GoNilChecks::canHoistInst(MachineInstr *FaultingMI,
unsigned PointerReg,
ArrayRef<MachineInstr *> InstsSeenSoFar,
MachineBasicBlock *NullSucc,
MachineInstr *&Dependence) {
auto DepResult = computeDependence(FaultingMI, InstsSeenSoFar);
if (!DepResult.CanReorder)
return false;
if (!DepResult.PotentialDependence) {
Dependence = nullptr;
return true;
auto DependenceItr = *DepResult.PotentialDependence;
auto *DependenceMI = *DependenceItr;
// We don't want to reason about speculating loads. Note -- at this point
// we should have already filtered out all of the other non-speculatable
// things, like calls and stores.
// We also do not want to hoist stores because it might change the memory
// while the FaultingMI may result in faulting.
assert(canHandle(DependenceMI) && "Should never have reached here!");
if (DependenceMI->mayLoadOrStore())
return false;
for (auto &DependenceMO : DependenceMI->operands()) {
if (!(DependenceMO.isReg() && DependenceMO.getReg()))
// Make sure that we won't clobber any live ins to the sibling block by
// hoisting Dependency. For instance, we can't hoist INST to before the
// null check (even if it safe, and does not violate any dependencies in
// the non_null_block) if %rdx is live in to _null_block.
// test %rcx, %rcx
// je _null_block
// _non_null_block:
// %rdx = INST
// ...
// This restriction does not apply to the faulting load inst because in
// case the pointer loaded from is in the null page, the load will not
// semantically execute, and affect machine state. That is, if the load
// was loading into %rax and it faults, the value of %rax should stay the
// same as it would have been had the load not have executed and we'd have
// branched to NullSucc directly.
if (AnyAliasLiveIn(TRI, NullSucc, DependenceMO.getReg()))
return false;
// The Dependency can't be re-defining the base register -- then we won't
// get the memory operation on the address we want. This is already
// checked in \c IsSuitableMemoryOp.
assert(!(DependenceMO.isDef() &&
TRI->regsOverlap(DependenceMO.getReg(), PointerReg)) &&
"Should have been checked before!");
auto DepDepResult =
computeDependence(DependenceMI, {InstsSeenSoFar.begin(), DependenceItr});
if (!DepDepResult.CanReorder || DepDepResult.PotentialDependence)
return false;
Dependence = DependenceMI;
return true;
/// Analyze MBB to check if its terminating branch can be turned into an
/// implicit null check. If yes, append a description of the said null check to
/// NullCheckList and return true, else return false.
bool GoNilChecks::analyzeBlockForNullChecks(
MachineBasicBlock &MBB, SmallVectorImpl<NullCheck> &NullCheckList) {
using MachineBranchPredicate = TargetInstrInfo::MachineBranchPredicate;
MDNode *BranchMD = nullptr;
if (auto *BB = MBB.getBasicBlock())
BranchMD = BB->getTerminator()->getMetadata(LLVMContext::MD_make_implicit);
if (!BranchMD)
return false;
MachineBranchPredicate MBP;
if (TII->analyzeBranchPredicate(MBB, MBP, true))
return false;
// Is the predicate comparing an integer to zero?
if (!(MBP.LHS.isReg() && MBP.RHS.isImm() && MBP.RHS.getImm() == 0 &&
(MBP.Predicate == MachineBranchPredicate::PRED_NE ||
MBP.Predicate == MachineBranchPredicate::PRED_EQ)))
return false;
// If we cannot erase the test instruction itself, then making the null check
// implicit does not buy us much.
if (!MBP.SingleUseCondition)
return false;
MachineBasicBlock *NotNullSucc, *NullSucc;
if (MBP.Predicate == MachineBranchPredicate::PRED_NE) {
NotNullSucc = MBP.TrueDest;
NullSucc = MBP.FalseDest;
} else {
NotNullSucc = MBP.FalseDest;
NullSucc = MBP.TrueDest;
// We handle the simplest case for now. We can potentially do better by using
// the machine dominator tree.
if (NotNullSucc->pred_size() != 1)
return false;
// To prevent the invalid transformation of the following code:
// mov %rax, %rcx
// test %rax, %rax
// %rax = ...
// je throw_npe
// mov(%rcx), %r9
// mov(%rax), %r10
// into:
// mov %rax, %rcx
// %rax = ....
// movl (%rax), %r10 // if fault, goto throw_npe
// mov(%rcx), %r9
// we must ensure that there are no instructions between the 'test' and
// conditional jump that modify %rax.
const unsigned PointerReg = MBP.LHS.getReg();
assert(MBP.ConditionDef->getParent() == &MBB && "Should be in basic block");
for (auto I = MBB.rbegin(); MBP.ConditionDef != &*I; ++I)
if (I->modifiesRegister(PointerReg, TRI))
return false;
// Starting with a code fragment like:
// test %rax, %rax
// jne LblNotNull
// LblNull:
// callq throw_NullPointerException
// LblNotNull:
// Inst0
// Inst1
// ...
// Def = Load (%rax + <offset>)
// ...
// we want to end up with
// Def = FaultingLoad (%rax + <offset>), LblNull
// jmp LblNotNull ;; explicit or fallthrough
// LblNotNull:
// Inst0
// Inst1
// ...
// LblNull:
// callq throw_NullPointerException
// To see why this is legal, consider the two possibilities:
// 1. %rax is null: since we constrain <offset> to be less than PageSize, the
// load instruction dereferences the null page, causing a segmentation
// fault.
// 2. %rax is not null: in this case we know that the load cannot fault, as
// otherwise the load would've faulted in the original program too and the
// original program would've been undefined.
// This reasoning cannot be extended to justify hoisting through arbitrary
// control flow. For instance, in the example below (in pseudo-C)
// if (ptr == null) { throw_npe(); unreachable; }
// if (some_cond) { return 42; }
// v = ptr->field; // LD
// ...
// we cannot (without code duplication) use the load marked "LD" to null check
// ptr -- clause (2) above does not apply in this case. In the above program
// the safety of ptr->field can be dependent on some_cond; and, for instance,
// ptr could be some non-null invalid reference that never gets loaded from
// because some_cond is always true.
SmallVector<MachineInstr *, 8> InstsSeenSoFar;
for (auto &MI : *NotNullSucc) {
if (!canHandle(&MI) || InstsSeenSoFar.size() >= MaxInstsToConsider)
return false;
MachineInstr *Dependence;
SuitabilityResult SR = isSuitableMemoryOp(MI, PointerReg, InstsSeenSoFar);
if (SR == SR_Impossible)
return false;
if (SR == SR_Suitable &&
canHoistInst(&MI, PointerReg, InstsSeenSoFar, NullSucc, Dependence)) {
NullCheckList.emplace_back(&MI, MBP.ConditionDef, &MBB, NotNullSucc,
NullSucc, Dependence);
return true;
// If MI re-defines the PointerReg then we cannot move further.
if (llvm::any_of(MI.operands(), [&](MachineOperand &MO) {
return MO.isReg() && MO.getReg() && MO.isDef() &&
TRI->regsOverlap(MO.getReg(), PointerReg);
return false;
return false;
/// Rewrite the null checks in NullCheckList into implicit null checks.
ArrayRef<GoNilChecks::NullCheck> NullCheckList) {
DebugLoc DL;
for (auto &NC : NullCheckList) {
// Remove the conditional branch dependent on the null check.
unsigned BranchesRemoved = TII->removeBranch(*NC.getCheckBlock());
assert(BranchesRemoved > 0 && "expected at least one branch!");
MachineBasicBlock* CheckBB = NC.getCheckBlock();
if (auto *DepMI = NC.getOnlyDependency()) {
CheckBB->insert(CheckBB->end(), DepMI);
// Insert a faulting instruction where the conditional branch was
// originally. We check earlier ensures that this bit of code motion
// is legal. We do not touch the successors list for any basic block
// since we haven't changed control flow, we've just made it implicit.
MachineInstr *FaultMI = NC.getMemOperation();
CheckBB->insert(CheckBB->end(), FaultMI);
// Insert an *unconditional* branch to not-null successor.
if (!CheckBB->isLayoutSuccessor(NC.getNotNullSucc()))
TII->insertBranch(*CheckBB, NC.getNotNullSucc(), nullptr,
/*Cond=*/None, DL);
if (!FaultMI->getMF()->getLandingPads().empty())
insertLandingPad(FaultMI, NC.getNullSucc());
/// Add an exception table entry covering the faulting instruction.
GoNilChecks::insertLandingPad(MachineInstr *FaultMI,
MachineBasicBlock *FaultBB) {
MachineFunction *MF = FaultBB->getParent();
MCContext &Context = MF->getContext();
auto &EHLabelDesc = TII->get(TargetOpcode::EH_LABEL);
DebugLoc DL;
// The expected control flow is:
// load/store // handler: faultBB
// ...
// faultBB:
// invoke __go_runtime_error(...) unwind label padBB
// padBB:
// exception handler
// We need to find padBB.
if (!FaultBB->isEHPad()) {
MachineBasicBlock *PadBB = nullptr;
for (auto SI = FaultBB->succ_begin(), SE = FaultBB->succ_end(); SI != SE; ++SI)
if ((*SI)->isEHPad()) {
PadBB = *SI;
if (!PadBB)
// The original panic is not supposed to be caught in this frame.
// We don't need to catch the segfault either.
// Create a landing pad.
LandingPadInfo &LP = MF->getOrCreateLandingPadInfo(FaultBB);
MCSymbol *FaultSym;
if (FaultBB->front().isEHLabel())
FaultSym = FaultBB->front().getOperand(0).getMCSymbol();
else {
FaultSym = Context.createTempSymbol();
BuildMI(*FaultBB, FaultBB->begin(), DebugLoc(), EHLabelDesc).addSym(FaultSym);
LP.LandingPadLabel = FaultSym;
LP.TypeIds = MF->getOrCreateLandingPadInfo(PadBB).TypeIds;
// Tricky:
// The original semantics of
// is that when the fault happens, the signal handler will jump to
// faultBB, which will raise an exception.
// In the Go runtime the signal handler itself raises the exception.
// We get here when the exception is already raised. Don't raise
// again. Just jump to the actual exception handler.
// We cannot directly put padBB in the exception table, as we want
// to execute the instructions in faultBB first (except the panic
// call).
for (MachineInstr &MI : *FaultBB)
if (MI.isCall() && MI.getOperand(0).isGlobal() &&
MI.getOperand(0).getGlobal()->getName() == "__go_runtime_error") {
TII->insertBranch(*FaultBB, PadBB, nullptr, None, DL);
// Add EH labels before and after the faulting op.
MachineBasicBlock *MBB = FaultMI->getParent();
MCSymbol *BeginSym = Context.createTempSymbol();
BuildMI(*MBB, FaultMI, DL, EHLabelDesc).addSym(BeginSym);
MCSymbol *EndSym = Context.createTempSymbol();
BuildMI(*MBB, ++FaultMI->getIterator(), DL, EHLabelDesc).addSym(EndSym);
// Add exception table entry.
MF->addInvoke(FaultBB, BeginSym, EndSym);
char GoNilChecks::ID = 0;
"Make nil checks implicit", false, false)
"Make nil checks implicit", false, false)
FunctionPass *llvm::createGoNilChecksPass() { return new GoNilChecks(); }