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// Copyright 2011 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// This file implements the Check function, which drives type-checking.
package types
import (
// debugging/development support
const (
debug = false // leave on during development
trace = false // turn on for detailed type resolution traces
// If forceStrict is set, the type-checker enforces additional
// rules not specified by the Go 1 spec, but which will
// catch guaranteed run-time errors if the respective
// code is executed. In other words, programs passing in
// strict mode are Go 1 compliant, but not all Go 1 programs
// will pass in strict mode. The additional rules are:
// - A type assertion x.(T) where T is an interface type
// is invalid if any (statically known) method that exists
// for both x and T have different signatures.
const forceStrict = false
// exprInfo stores information about an untyped expression.
type exprInfo struct {
isLhs bool // expression is lhs operand of a shift with delayed type-check
mode operandMode
typ *Basic
val constant.Value // constant value; or nil (if not a constant)
// A context represents the context within which an object is type-checked.
type context struct {
decl *declInfo // package-level declaration whose init expression/function body is checked
scope *Scope // top-most scope for lookups
pos token.Pos // if valid, identifiers are looked up as if at position pos (used by Eval)
iota constant.Value // value of iota in a constant declaration; nil otherwise
errpos positioner // if set, identifier position of a constant with inherited initializer
sig *Signature // function signature if inside a function; nil otherwise
isPanic map[*ast.CallExpr]bool // set of panic call expressions (used for termination check)
hasLabel bool // set if a function makes use of labels (only ~1% of functions); unused outside functions
hasCallOrRecv bool // set if an expression contains a function call or channel receive operation
// lookup looks up name in the current context and returns the matching object, or nil.
func (ctxt *context) lookup(name string) Object {
_, obj := ctxt.scope.LookupParent(name, ctxt.pos)
return obj
// An importKey identifies an imported package by import path and source directory
// (directory containing the file containing the import). In practice, the directory
// may always be the same, or may not matter. Given an (import path, directory), an
// importer must always return the same package (but given two different import paths,
// an importer may still return the same package by mapping them to the same package
// paths).
type importKey struct {
path, dir string
// A dotImportKey describes a dot-imported object in the given scope.
type dotImportKey struct {
scope *Scope
name string
// A Checker maintains the state of the type checker.
// It must be created with NewChecker.
type Checker struct {
// package information
// (initialized by NewChecker, valid for the life-time of checker)
conf *Config
fset *token.FileSet
pkg *Package
version version // accepted language version
nextID uint64 // unique Id for type parameters (first valid Id is 1)
objMap map[Object]*declInfo // maps package-level objects and (non-interface) methods to declaration info
impMap map[importKey]*Package // maps (import path, source directory) to (complete or fake) package
typMap map[string]*Named // maps an instantiated named type hash to a *Named type
// pkgPathMap maps package names to the set of distinct import paths we've
// seen for that name, anywhere in the import graph. It is used for
// disambiguating package names in error messages.
// pkgPathMap is allocated lazily, so that we don't pay the price of building
// it on the happy path. seenPkgMap tracks the packages that we've already
// walked.
pkgPathMap map[string]map[string]bool
seenPkgMap map[*Package]bool
// information collected during type-checking of a set of package files
// (initialized by Files, valid only for the duration of check.Files;
// maps and lists are allocated on demand)
files []*ast.File // package files
imports []*PkgName // list of imported packages
dotImportMap map[dotImportKey]*PkgName // maps dot-imported objects to the package they were dot-imported through
firstErr error // first error encountered
methods map[*TypeName][]*Func // maps package scope type names to associated non-blank (non-interface) methods
untyped map[ast.Expr]exprInfo // map of expressions without final type
delayed []func() // stack of delayed action segments; segments are processed in FIFO order
objPath []Object // path of object dependencies during type inference (for cycle reporting)
// context within which the current object is type-checked
// (valid only for the duration of type-checking a specific object)
// debugging
indent int // indentation for tracing
// addDeclDep adds the dependency edge (check.decl -> to) if check.decl exists
func (check *Checker) addDeclDep(to Object) {
from := check.decl
if from == nil {
return // not in a package-level init expression
if _, found := check.objMap[to]; !found {
return // to is not a package-level object
func (check *Checker) rememberUntyped(e ast.Expr, lhs bool, mode operandMode, typ *Basic, val constant.Value) {
m := check.untyped
if m == nil {
m = make(map[ast.Expr]exprInfo)
check.untyped = m
m[e] = exprInfo{lhs, mode, typ, val}
// later pushes f on to the stack of actions that will be processed later;
// either at the end of the current statement, or in case of a local constant
// or variable declaration, before the constant or variable is in scope
// (so that f still sees the scope before any new declarations).
func (check *Checker) later(f func()) {
check.delayed = append(check.delayed, f)
// push pushes obj onto the object path and returns its index in the path.
func (check *Checker) push(obj Object) int {
check.objPath = append(check.objPath, obj)
return len(check.objPath) - 1
// pop pops and returns the topmost object from the object path.
func (check *Checker) pop() Object {
i := len(check.objPath) - 1
obj := check.objPath[i]
check.objPath[i] = nil
check.objPath = check.objPath[:i]
return obj
// NewChecker returns a new Checker instance for a given package.
// Package files may be added incrementally via checker.Files.
func NewChecker(conf *Config, fset *token.FileSet, pkg *Package, info *Info) *Checker {
// make sure we have a configuration
if conf == nil {
conf = new(Config)
// make sure we have an info struct
if info == nil {
info = new(Info)
version, err := parseGoVersion(conf.GoVersion)
if err != nil {
panic(fmt.Sprintf("invalid Go version %q (%v)", conf.GoVersion, err))
return &Checker{
conf: conf,
fset: fset,
pkg: pkg,
Info: info,
version: version,
objMap: make(map[Object]*declInfo),
impMap: make(map[importKey]*Package),
typMap: make(map[string]*Named),
// initFiles initializes the files-specific portion of checker.
// The provided files must all belong to the same package.
func (check *Checker) initFiles(files []*ast.File) {
// start with a clean slate (check.Files may be called multiple times)
check.files = nil
check.imports = nil
check.dotImportMap = nil
check.firstErr = nil
check.methods = nil
check.untyped = nil
check.delayed = nil
// determine package name and collect valid files
pkg := check.pkg
for _, file := range files {
switch name := file.Name.Name; {
case "":
if name != "_" { = name
} else {
check.errorf(file.Name, _BlankPkgName, "invalid package name _")
case name:
check.files = append(check.files, file)
check.errorf(atPos(file.Package), _MismatchedPkgName, "package %s; expected %s", name,
// ignore this file
// A bailout panic is used for early termination.
type bailout struct{}
func (check *Checker) handleBailout(err *error) {
switch p := recover().(type) {
case nil, bailout:
// normal return or early exit
*err = check.firstErr
// re-panic
// Files checks the provided files as part of the checker's package.
func (check *Checker) Files(files []*ast.File) error { return check.checkFiles(files) }
var errBadCgo = errors.New("cannot use FakeImportC and go115UsesCgo together")
func (check *Checker) checkFiles(files []*ast.File) (err error) {
if check.conf.FakeImportC && check.conf.go115UsesCgo {
return errBadCgo
defer check.handleBailout(&err)
check.processDelayed(0) // incl. all functions
if !check.conf.DisableUnusedImportCheck {
check.pkg.complete = true
// no longer needed - release memory
check.imports = nil
check.dotImportMap = nil
check.pkgPathMap = nil
check.seenPkgMap = nil
// TODO(rFindley) There's more memory we should release at this point.
// processDelayed processes all delayed actions pushed after top.
func (check *Checker) processDelayed(top int) {
// If each delayed action pushes a new action, the
// stack will continue to grow during this loop.
// However, it is only processing functions (which
// are processed in a delayed fashion) that may
// add more actions (such as nested functions), so
// this is a sufficiently bounded process.
for i := top; i < len(check.delayed); i++ {
check.delayed[i]() // may append to check.delayed
assert(top <= len(check.delayed)) // stack must not have shrunk
check.delayed = check.delayed[:top]
func (check *Checker) record(x *operand) {
// convert x into a user-friendly set of values
// TODO(gri) this code can be simplified
var typ Type
var val constant.Value
switch x.mode {
case invalid:
typ = Typ[Invalid]
case novalue:
typ = (*Tuple)(nil)
case constant_:
typ = x.typ
val = x.val
typ = x.typ
assert(x.expr != nil && typ != nil)
if isUntyped(typ) {
// delay type and value recording until we know the type
// or until the end of type checking
check.rememberUntyped(x.expr, false, x.mode, typ.(*Basic), val)
} else {
check.recordTypeAndValue(x.expr, x.mode, typ, val)
func (check *Checker) recordUntyped() {
if !debug && check.Types == nil {
return // nothing to do
for x, info := range check.untyped {
if debug && isTyped(info.typ) {
check.dump("%v: %s (type %s) is typed", x.Pos(), x, info.typ)
check.recordTypeAndValue(x, info.mode, info.typ, info.val)
func (check *Checker) recordTypeAndValue(x ast.Expr, mode operandMode, typ Type, val constant.Value) {
assert(x != nil)
assert(typ != nil)
if mode == invalid {
return // omit
if mode == constant_ {
assert(val != nil)
// We check is(typ, IsConstType) here as constant expressions may be
// recorded as type parameters.
assert(typ == Typ[Invalid] || is(typ, IsConstType))
if m := check.Types; m != nil {
m[x] = TypeAndValue{mode, typ, val}
func (check *Checker) recordBuiltinType(f ast.Expr, sig *Signature) {
// f must be a (possibly parenthesized, possibly qualified)
// identifier denoting a built-in (including unsafe's non-constant
// functions Add and Slice): record the signature for f and possible
// children.
for {
check.recordTypeAndValue(f, builtin, sig, nil)
switch p := f.(type) {
case *ast.Ident, *ast.SelectorExpr:
return // we're done
case *ast.ParenExpr:
f = p.X
func (check *Checker) recordCommaOkTypes(x ast.Expr, a [2]Type) {
assert(x != nil)
if a[0] == nil || a[1] == nil {
assert(isTyped(a[0]) && isTyped(a[1]) && (isBoolean(a[1]) || a[1] == universeError))
if m := check.Types; m != nil {
for {
tv := m[x]
assert(tv.Type != nil) // should have been recorded already
pos := x.Pos()
tv.Type = NewTuple(
NewVar(pos, check.pkg, "", a[0]),
NewVar(pos, check.pkg, "", a[1]),
m[x] = tv
// if x is a parenthesized expression (p.X), update p.X
p, _ := x.(*ast.ParenExpr)
if p == nil {
x = p.X
func (check *Checker) recordInferred(call ast.Expr, targs []Type, sig *Signature) {
assert(call != nil)
assert(sig != nil)
if m := check.Inferred; m != nil {
m[call] = Inferred{NewTypeList(targs), sig}
func (check *Checker) recordDef(id *ast.Ident, obj Object) {
assert(id != nil)
if m := check.Defs; m != nil {
m[id] = obj
func (check *Checker) recordUse(id *ast.Ident, obj Object) {
assert(id != nil)
assert(obj != nil)
if m := check.Uses; m != nil {
m[id] = obj
func (check *Checker) recordImplicit(node ast.Node, obj Object) {
assert(node != nil)
assert(obj != nil)
if m := check.Implicits; m != nil {
m[node] = obj
func (check *Checker) recordSelection(x *ast.SelectorExpr, kind SelectionKind, recv Type, obj Object, index []int, indirect bool) {
assert(obj != nil && (recv == nil || len(index) > 0))
check.recordUse(x.Sel, obj)
if m := check.Selections; m != nil {
m[x] = &Selection{kind, recv, obj, index, indirect}
func (check *Checker) recordScope(node ast.Node, scope *Scope) {
assert(node != nil)
assert(scope != nil)
if m := check.Scopes; m != nil {
m[node] = scope