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// Copyright 2023 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Simple append-only thread-safe hash map for tracing.
// Provides a mapping between variable-length data and a
// unique ID. Subsequent puts of the same data will return
// the same ID. The zero value is ready to use.
// Uses a region-based allocation scheme internally, and
// reset clears the whole map.
// It avoids doing any high-level Go operations so it's safe
// to use even in sensitive contexts.
package runtime
import (
type traceMap struct {
root atomic.UnsafePointer // *traceMapNode (can't use generics because it's notinheap)
_ cpu.CacheLinePad
seq atomic.Uint64
_ cpu.CacheLinePad
mem traceRegionAlloc
// traceMapNode is an implementation of a lock-free append-only hash-trie
// (a trie of the hash bits).
// Key features:
// - 4-ary trie. Child nodes are indexed by the upper 2 (remaining) bits of the hash.
// For example, top level uses bits [63:62], next level uses [61:60] and so on.
// - New nodes are placed at the first empty level encountered.
// - When the first child is added to a node, the existing value is not moved into a child.
// This means that you must check the key at each level, not just at the leaf.
// - No deletion or rebalancing.
// - Intentionally devolves into a linked list on hash collisions (the hash bits will all
// get shifted out during iteration, and new nodes will just be appended to the 0th child).
type traceMapNode struct {
_ sys.NotInHeap
children [4]atomic.UnsafePointer // *traceMapNode (can't use generics because it's notinheap)
hash uintptr
id uint64
data []byte
// stealID steals an ID from the table, ensuring that it will not
// appear in the table anymore.
func (tab *traceMap) stealID() uint64 {
return tab.seq.Add(1)
// put inserts the data into the table.
// It's always safe for callers to noescape data because put copies its bytes.
// Returns a unique ID for the data and whether this is the first time
// the data has been added to the map.
func (tab *traceMap) put(data unsafe.Pointer, size uintptr) (uint64, bool) {
if size == 0 {
return 0, false
hash := memhash(data, 0, size)
var newNode *traceMapNode
m := &tab.root
hashIter := hash
for {
n := (*traceMapNode)(m.Load())
if n == nil {
// Try to insert a new map node. We may end up discarding
// this node if we fail to insert because it turns out the
// value is already in the map.
// The discard will only happen if two threads race on inserting
// the same value. Both might create nodes, but only one will
// succeed on insertion. If two threads race to insert two
// different values, then both nodes will *always* get inserted,
// because the equality checking below will always fail.
// Performance note: contention on insertion is likely to be
// higher for small maps, but since this data structure is
// append-only, either the map stays small because there isn't
// much activity, or the map gets big and races to insert on
// the same node are much less likely.
if newNode == nil {
newNode = tab.newTraceMapNode(data, size, hash, tab.seq.Add(1))
if m.CompareAndSwapNoWB(nil, unsafe.Pointer(newNode)) {
return, true
// Reload n. Because pointers are only stored once,
// we must have lost the race, and therefore n is not nil
// anymore.
n = (*traceMapNode)(m.Load())
if n.hash == hash && uintptr(len( == size {
if memequal(unsafe.Pointer(&[0]), data, size) {
return, false
m = &n.children[hashIter>>(8*goarch.PtrSize-2)]
hashIter <<= 2
func (tab *traceMap) newTraceMapNode(data unsafe.Pointer, size, hash uintptr, id uint64) *traceMapNode {
// Create data array.
sl := notInHeapSlice{
array: tab.mem.alloc(size),
len: int(size),
cap: int(size),
memmove(unsafe.Pointer(sl.array), data, size)
// Create metadata structure.
meta := (*traceMapNode)(unsafe.Pointer(tab.mem.alloc(unsafe.Sizeof(traceMapNode{}))))
*(*notInHeapSlice)(unsafe.Pointer(& = sl = id
meta.hash = hash
return meta
// reset drops all allocated memory from the table and resets it.
// The caller must ensure that there are no put operations executing concurrently
// with this function.
func (tab *traceMap) reset() {