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// Copyright 2019 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Scavenging free pages.
// This file implements scavenging (the release of physical pages backing mapped
// memory) of free and unused pages in the heap as a way to deal with page-level
// fragmentation and reduce the RSS of Go applications.
// Scavenging in Go happens on two fronts: there's the background
// (asynchronous) scavenger and the allocation-time (synchronous) scavenger.
// The former happens on a goroutine much like the background sweeper which is
// soft-capped at using scavengePercent of the mutator's time, based on
// order-of-magnitude estimates of the costs of scavenging. The latter happens
// when allocating pages from the heap.
// The scavenger's primary goal is to bring the estimated heap RSS of the
// application down to a goal.
// Before we consider what this looks like, we need to split the world into two
// halves. One in which a memory limit is not set, and one in which it is.
// For the former, the goal is defined as:
// (retainExtraPercent+100) / 100 * (heapGoal / lastHeapGoal) * lastHeapInUse
// Essentially, we wish to have the application's RSS track the heap goal, but
// the heap goal is defined in terms of bytes of objects, rather than pages like
// RSS. As a result, we need to take into account for fragmentation internal to
// spans. heapGoal / lastHeapGoal defines the ratio between the current heap goal
// and the last heap goal, which tells us by how much the heap is growing and
// shrinking. We estimate what the heap will grow to in terms of pages by taking
// this ratio and multiplying it by heapInUse at the end of the last GC, which
// allows us to account for this additional fragmentation. Note that this
// procedure makes the assumption that the degree of fragmentation won't change
// dramatically over the next GC cycle. Overestimating the amount of
// fragmentation simply results in higher memory use, which will be accounted
// for by the next pacing up date. Underestimating the fragmentation however
// could lead to performance degradation. Handling this case is not within the
// scope of the scavenger. Situations where the amount of fragmentation balloons
// over the course of a single GC cycle should be considered pathologies,
// flagged as bugs, and fixed appropriately.
// An additional factor of retainExtraPercent is added as a buffer to help ensure
// that there's more unscavenged memory to allocate out of, since each allocation
// out of scavenged memory incurs a potentially expensive page fault.
// If a memory limit is set, then we wish to pick a scavenge goal that maintains
// that memory limit. For that, we look at total memory that has been committed
// (memstats.mappedReady) and try to bring that down below the limit. In this case,
// we want to give buffer space in the *opposite* direction. When the application
// is close to the limit, we want to make sure we push harder to keep it under, so
// if we target below the memory limit, we ensure that the background scavenger is
// giving the situation the urgency it deserves.
// In this case, the goal is defined as:
// (100-reduceExtraPercent) / 100 * memoryLimit
// We compute both of these goals, and check whether either of them have been met.
// The background scavenger continues operating as long as either one of the goals
// has not been met.
// The goals are updated after each GC.
// Synchronous scavenging happens for one of two reasons: if an allocation would
// exceed the memory limit or whenever the heap grows in size, for some
// definition of heap-growth. The intuition behind this second reason is that the
// application had to grow the heap because existing fragments were not sufficiently
// large to satisfy a page-level memory allocation, so we scavenge those fragments
// eagerly to offset the growth in RSS that results.
// Lastly, not all pages are available for scavenging at all times and in all cases.
// The background scavenger and heap-growth scavenger only release memory in chunks
// that have not been densely-allocated for at least 1 full GC cycle. The reason
// behind this is likelihood of reuse: the Go heap is allocated in a first-fit order
// and by the end of the GC mark phase, the heap tends to be densely packed. Releasing
// memory in these densely packed chunks while they're being packed is counter-productive,
// and worse, it breaks up huge pages on systems that support them. The scavenger (invoked
// during memory allocation) further ensures that chunks it identifies as "dense" are
// immediately eligible for being backed by huge pages. Note that for the most part these
// density heuristics are best-effort heuristics. It's totally possible (but unlikely)
// that a chunk that just became dense is scavenged in the case of a race between memory
// allocation and scavenging.
// When synchronously scavenging for the memory limit or for debug.FreeOSMemory, these
// "dense" packing heuristics are ignored (in other words, scavenging is "forced") because
// in these scenarios returning memory to the OS is more important than keeping CPU
// overheads low.
package runtime
import (
const (
// The background scavenger is paced according to these parameters.
// scavengePercent represents the portion of mutator time we're willing
// to spend on scavenging in percent.
scavengePercent = 1 // 1%
// retainExtraPercent represents the amount of memory over the heap goal
// that the scavenger should keep as a buffer space for the allocator.
// This constant is used when we do not have a memory limit set.
// The purpose of maintaining this overhead is to have a greater pool of
// unscavenged memory available for allocation (since using scavenged memory
// incurs an additional cost), to account for heap fragmentation and
// the ever-changing layout of the heap.
retainExtraPercent = 10
// reduceExtraPercent represents the amount of memory under the limit
// that the scavenger should target. For example, 5 means we target 95%
// of the limit.
// The purpose of shooting lower than the limit is to ensure that, once
// close to the limit, the scavenger is working hard to maintain it. If
// we have a memory limit set but are far away from it, there's no harm
// in leaving up to 100-retainExtraPercent live, and it's more efficient
// anyway, for the same reasons that retainExtraPercent exists.
reduceExtraPercent = 5
// maxPagesPerPhysPage is the maximum number of supported runtime pages per
// physical page, based on maxPhysPageSize.
maxPagesPerPhysPage = maxPhysPageSize / pageSize
// scavengeCostRatio is the approximate ratio between the costs of using previously
// scavenged memory and scavenging memory.
// For most systems the cost of scavenging greatly outweighs the costs
// associated with using scavenged memory, making this constant 0. On other systems
// (especially ones where "sysUsed" is not just a no-op) this cost is non-trivial.
// This ratio is used as part of multiplicative factor to help the scavenger account
// for the additional costs of using scavenged memory in its pacing.
scavengeCostRatio = 0.7 * (goos.IsDarwin + goos.IsIos)
// scavChunkHiOcFrac indicates the fraction of pages that need to be allocated
// in the chunk in a single GC cycle for it to be considered high density.
scavChunkHiOccFrac = 0.96875
scavChunkHiOccPages = uint16(scavChunkHiOccFrac * pallocChunkPages)
// heapRetained returns an estimate of the current heap RSS.
func heapRetained() uint64 {
return gcController.heapInUse.load() + gcController.heapFree.load()
// gcPaceScavenger updates the scavenger's pacing, particularly
// its rate and RSS goal. For this, it requires the current heapGoal,
// and the heapGoal for the previous GC cycle.
// The RSS goal is based on the current heap goal with a small overhead
// to accommodate non-determinism in the allocator.
// The pacing is based on scavengePageRate, which applies to both regular and
// huge pages. See that constant for more information.
// Must be called whenever GC pacing is updated.
// mheap_.lock must be held or the world must be stopped.
func gcPaceScavenger(memoryLimit int64, heapGoal, lastHeapGoal uint64) {
// As described at the top of this file, there are two scavenge goals here: one
// for gcPercent and one for memoryLimit. Let's handle the latter first because
// it's simpler.
// We want to target retaining (100-reduceExtraPercent)% of the heap.
memoryLimitGoal := uint64(float64(memoryLimit) * (1 - reduceExtraPercent/100.0))
// mappedReady is comparable to memoryLimit, and represents how much total memory
// the Go runtime has committed now (estimated).
mappedReady := gcController.mappedReady.Load()
// If we're below the goal already indicate that we don't need the background
// scavenger for the memory limit. This may seems worrisome at first, but note
// that the allocator will assist the background scavenger in the face of a memory
// limit, so we'll be safe even if we stop the scavenger when we shouldn't have.
if mappedReady <= memoryLimitGoal {
} else {
// Now handle the gcPercent goal.
// If we're called before the first GC completed, disable scavenging.
// We never scavenge before the 2nd GC cycle anyway (we don't have enough
// information about the heap yet) so this is fine, and avoids a fault
// or garbage data later.
if lastHeapGoal == 0 {
// Compute our scavenging goal.
goalRatio := float64(heapGoal) / float64(lastHeapGoal)
gcPercentGoal := uint64(float64(memstats.lastHeapInUse) * goalRatio)
// Add retainExtraPercent overhead to retainedGoal. This calculation
// looks strange but the purpose is to arrive at an integer division
// (e.g. if retainExtraPercent = 12.5, then we get a divisor of 8)
// that also avoids the overflow from a multiplication.
gcPercentGoal += gcPercentGoal / (1.0 / (retainExtraPercent / 100.0))
// Align it to a physical page boundary to make the following calculations
// a bit more exact.
gcPercentGoal = (gcPercentGoal + uint64(physPageSize) - 1) &^ (uint64(physPageSize) - 1)
// Represents where we are now in the heap's contribution to RSS in bytes.
// Guaranteed to always be a multiple of physPageSize on systems where
// physPageSize <= pageSize since we map new heap memory at a size larger than
// any physPageSize and released memory in multiples of the physPageSize.
// However, certain functions recategorize heap memory as other stats (e.g.
// stacks) and this happens in multiples of pageSize, so on systems
// where physPageSize > pageSize the calculations below will not be exact.
// Generally this is OK since we'll be off by at most one regular
// physical page.
heapRetainedNow := heapRetained()
// If we're already below our goal, or within one page of our goal, then indicate
// that we don't need the background scavenger for maintaining a memory overhead
// proportional to the heap goal.
if heapRetainedNow <= gcPercentGoal || heapRetainedNow-gcPercentGoal < uint64(physPageSize) {
} else {
var scavenge struct {
// gcPercentGoal is the amount of retained heap memory (measured by
// heapRetained) that the runtime will try to maintain by returning
// memory to the OS. This goal is derived from gcController.gcPercent
// by choosing to retain enough memory to allocate heap memory up to
// the heap goal.
gcPercentGoal atomic.Uint64
// memoryLimitGoal is the amount of memory retained by the runtime (
// measured by gcController.mappedReady) that the runtime will try to
// maintain by returning memory to the OS. This goal is derived from
// gcController.memoryLimit by choosing to target the memory limit or
// some lower target to keep the scavenger working.
memoryLimitGoal atomic.Uint64
// assistTime is the time spent by the allocator scavenging in the last GC cycle.
// This is reset once a GC cycle ends.
assistTime atomic.Int64
// backgroundTime is the time spent by the background scavenger in the last GC cycle.
// This is reset once a GC cycle ends.
backgroundTime atomic.Int64
const (
// It doesn't really matter what value we start at, but we can't be zero, because
// that'll cause divide-by-zero issues. Pick something conservative which we'll
// also use as a fallback.
startingScavSleepRatio = 0.001
// Spend at least 1 ms scavenging, otherwise the corresponding
// sleep time to maintain our desired utilization is too low to
// be reliable.
minScavWorkTime = 1e6
// Sleep/wait state of the background scavenger.
var scavenger scavengerState
type scavengerState struct {
// lock protects all fields below.
lock mutex
// g is the goroutine the scavenger is bound to.
g *g
// timer is the timer used for the scavenger to sleep.
timer *timer
// sysmonWake signals to sysmon that it should wake the scavenger.
sysmonWake atomic.Uint32
// parked is whether or not the scavenger is parked.
parked bool
// printControllerReset instructs printScavTrace to signal that
// the controller was reset.
printControllerReset bool
// targetCPUFraction is the target CPU overhead for the scavenger.
targetCPUFraction float64
// sleepRatio is the ratio of time spent doing scavenging work to
// time spent sleeping. This is used to decide how long the scavenger
// should sleep for in between batches of work. It is set by
// critSleepController in order to maintain a CPU overhead of
// targetCPUFraction.
// Lower means more sleep, higher means more aggressive scavenging.
sleepRatio float64
// sleepController controls sleepRatio.
// See sleepRatio for more details.
sleepController piController
// controllerCooldown is the time left in nanoseconds during which we avoid
// using the controller and we hold sleepRatio at a conservative
// value. Used if the controller's assumptions fail to hold.
controllerCooldown int64
// sleepStub is a stub used for testing to avoid actually having
// the scavenger sleep.
// Unlike the other stubs, this is not populated if left nil
// Instead, it is called when non-nil because any valid implementation
// of this function basically requires closing over this scavenger
// state, and allocating a closure is not allowed in the runtime as
// a matter of policy.
sleepStub func(n int64) int64
// scavenge is a function that scavenges n bytes of memory.
// Returns how many bytes of memory it actually scavenged, as
// well as the time it took in nanoseconds. Usually mheap.pages.scavenge
// with nanotime called around it, but stubbed out for testing.
// Like mheap.pages.scavenge, if it scavenges less than n bytes of
// memory, the caller may assume the heap is exhausted of scavengable
// memory for now.
// If this is nil, it is populated with the real thing in init.
scavenge func(n uintptr) (uintptr, int64)
// shouldStop is a callback called in the work loop and provides a
// point that can force the scavenger to stop early, for example because
// the scavenge policy dictates too much has been scavenged already.
// If this is nil, it is populated with the real thing in init.
shouldStop func() bool
// gomaxprocs returns the current value of gomaxprocs. Stub for testing.
// If this is nil, it is populated with the real thing in init.
gomaxprocs func() int32
// init initializes a scavenger state and wires to the current G.
// Must be called from a regular goroutine that can allocate.
func (s *scavengerState) init() {
if s.g != nil {
throw("scavenger state is already wired")
lockInit(&s.lock, lockRankScavenge)
s.g = getg()
s.timer = new(timer)
f := func(s any, _ uintptr, _ int64) {
s.timer.init(f, s)
// input: fraction of CPU time actually used.
// setpoint: ideal CPU fraction.
// output: ratio of time worked to time slept (determines sleep time).
// The output of this controller is somewhat indirect to what we actually
// want to achieve: how much time to sleep for. The reason for this definition
// is to ensure that the controller's outputs have a direct relationship with
// its inputs (as opposed to an inverse relationship), making it somewhat
// easier to reason about for tuning purposes.
s.sleepController = piController{
// Tuned loosely via Ziegler-Nichols process.
kp: 0.3375,
ti: 3.2e6,
tt: 1e9, // 1 second reset time.
// These ranges seem wide, but we want to give the controller plenty of
// room to hunt for the optimal value.
min: 0.001, // 1:1000
max: 1000.0, // 1000:1
s.sleepRatio = startingScavSleepRatio
// Install real functions if stubs aren't present.
if s.scavenge == nil {
s.scavenge = func(n uintptr) (uintptr, int64) {
start := nanotime()
r := mheap_.pages.scavenge(n, nil, false)
end := nanotime()
if start >= end {
return r, 0
scavenge.backgroundTime.Add(end - start)
return r, end - start
if s.shouldStop == nil {
s.shouldStop = func() bool {
// If background scavenging is disabled or if there's no work to do just stop.
return heapRetained() <= scavenge.gcPercentGoal.Load() &&
gcController.mappedReady.Load() <= scavenge.memoryLimitGoal.Load()
if s.gomaxprocs == nil {
s.gomaxprocs = func() int32 {
return gomaxprocs
// park parks the scavenger goroutine.
func (s *scavengerState) park() {
if getg() != s.g {
throw("tried to park scavenger from another goroutine")
s.parked = true
goparkunlock(&s.lock, waitReasonGCScavengeWait, traceBlockSystemGoroutine, 2)
// ready signals to sysmon that the scavenger should be awoken.
func (s *scavengerState) ready() {
// wake immediately unparks the scavenger if necessary.
// Safe to run without a P.
func (s *scavengerState) wake() {
if s.parked {
// Unset sysmonWake, since the scavenger is now being awoken.
// s.parked is unset to prevent a double wake-up.
s.parked = false
// Ready the goroutine by injecting it. We use injectglist instead
// of ready or goready in order to allow us to run this function
// without a P. injectglist also avoids placing the goroutine in
// the current P's runnext slot, which is desirable to prevent
// the scavenger from interfering with user goroutine scheduling
// too much.
var list gList
// sleep puts the scavenger to sleep based on the amount of time that it worked
// in nanoseconds.
// Note that this function should only be called by the scavenger.
// The scavenger may be woken up earlier by a pacing change, and it may not go
// to sleep at all if there's a pending pacing change.
func (s *scavengerState) sleep(worked float64) {
if getg() != s.g {
throw("tried to sleep scavenger from another goroutine")
if worked < minScavWorkTime {
// This means there wasn't enough work to actually fill up minScavWorkTime.
// That's fine; we shouldn't try to do anything with this information
// because it's going result in a short enough sleep request that things
// will get messy. Just assume we did at least this much work.
// All this means is that we'll sleep longer than we otherwise would have.
worked = minScavWorkTime
// Multiply the critical time by 1 + the ratio of the costs of using
// scavenged memory vs. scavenging memory. This forces us to pay down
// the cost of reusing this memory eagerly by sleeping for a longer period
// of time and scavenging less frequently. More concretely, we avoid situations
// where we end up scavenging so often that we hurt allocation performance
// because of the additional overheads of using scavenged memory.
worked *= 1 + scavengeCostRatio
// sleepTime is the amount of time we're going to sleep, based on the amount
// of time we worked, and the sleepRatio.
sleepTime := int64(worked / s.sleepRatio)
var slept int64
if s.sleepStub == nil {
// Set the timer.
// This must happen here instead of inside gopark
// because we can't close over any variables without
// failing escape analysis.
start := nanotime()
s.timer.reset(start+sleepTime, 0)
// Mark ourselves as asleep and go to sleep.
s.parked = true
goparkunlock(&s.lock, waitReasonSleep, traceBlockSleep, 2)
// How long we actually slept for.
slept = nanotime() - start
// Stop the timer here because s.wake is unable to do it for us.
// We don't really care if we succeed in stopping the timer. One
// reason we might fail is that we've already woken up, but the timer
// might be in the process of firing on some other P; essentially we're
// racing with it. That's totally OK. Double wake-ups are perfectly safe.
} else {
slept = s.sleepStub(sleepTime)
// Stop here if we're cooling down from the controller.
if s.controllerCooldown > 0 {
// worked and slept aren't exact measures of time, but it's OK to be a bit
// sloppy here. We're just hoping we're avoiding some transient bad behavior.
t := slept + int64(worked)
if t > s.controllerCooldown {
s.controllerCooldown = 0
} else {
s.controllerCooldown -= t
// idealFraction is the ideal % of overall application CPU time that we
// spend scavenging.
idealFraction := float64(scavengePercent) / 100.0
// Calculate the CPU time spent.
// This may be slightly inaccurate with respect to GOMAXPROCS, but we're
// recomputing this often enough relative to GOMAXPROCS changes in general
// (it only changes when the world is stopped, and not during a GC) that
// that small inaccuracy is in the noise.
cpuFraction := worked / ((float64(slept) + worked) * float64(s.gomaxprocs()))
// Update the critSleepRatio, adjusting until we reach our ideal fraction.
var ok bool
s.sleepRatio, ok =, idealFraction, float64(slept)+worked)
if !ok {
// The core assumption of the controller, that we can get a proportional
// response, broke down. This may be transient, so temporarily switch to
// sleeping a fixed, conservative amount.
s.sleepRatio = startingScavSleepRatio
s.controllerCooldown = 5e9 // 5 seconds.
// Signal the scav trace printer to output this.
// controllerFailed indicates that the scavenger's scheduling
// controller failed.
func (s *scavengerState) controllerFailed() {
s.printControllerReset = true
// run is the body of the main scavenging loop.
// Returns the number of bytes released and the estimated time spent
// releasing those bytes.
// Must be run on the scavenger goroutine.
func (s *scavengerState) run() (released uintptr, worked float64) {
if getg() != s.g {
throw("tried to run scavenger from another goroutine")
for worked < minScavWorkTime {
// If something from outside tells us to stop early, stop.
if s.shouldStop() {
// scavengeQuantum is the amount of memory we try to scavenge
// in one go. A smaller value means the scavenger is more responsive
// to the scheduler in case of e.g. preemption. A larger value means
// that the overheads of scavenging are better amortized, so better
// scavenging throughput.
// The current value is chosen assuming a cost of ~10µs/physical page
// (this is somewhat pessimistic), which implies a worst-case latency of
// about 160µs for 4 KiB physical pages. The current value is biased
// toward latency over throughput.
const scavengeQuantum = 64 << 10
// Accumulate the amount of time spent scavenging.
r, duration := s.scavenge(scavengeQuantum)
// On some platforms we may see end >= start if the time it takes to scavenge
// memory is less than the minimum granularity of its clock (e.g. Windows) or
// due to clock bugs.
// In this case, just assume scavenging takes 10 µs per regular physical page
// (determined empirically), and conservatively ignore the impact of huge pages
// on timing.
const approxWorkedNSPerPhysicalPage = 10e3
if duration == 0 {
worked += approxWorkedNSPerPhysicalPage * float64(r/physPageSize)
} else {
// TODO(mknyszek): If duration is small compared to worked, it could be
// rounded down to zero. Probably not a problem in practice because the
// values are all within a few orders of magnitude of each other but maybe
// worth worrying about.
worked += float64(duration)
released += r
// scavenge does not return until it either finds the requisite amount of
// memory to scavenge, or exhausts the heap. If we haven't found enough
// to scavenge, then the heap must be exhausted.
if r < scavengeQuantum {
// When using fake time just do one loop.
if faketime != 0 {
if released > 0 && released < physPageSize {
// If this happens, it means that we may have attempted to release part
// of a physical page, but the likely effect of that is that it released
// the whole physical page, some of which may have still been in-use.
// This could lead to memory corruption. Throw.
throw("released less than one physical page of memory")
// Background scavenger.
// The background scavenger maintains the RSS of the application below
// the line described by the proportional scavenging statistics in
// the mheap struct.
func bgscavenge(c chan int) {
c <- 1
for {
released, workTime :=
if released == 0 {
// scavenge scavenges nbytes worth of free pages, starting with the
// highest address first. Successive calls continue from where it left
// off until the heap is exhausted. force makes all memory available to
// scavenge, ignoring huge page heuristics.
// Returns the amount of memory scavenged in bytes.
// scavenge always tries to scavenge nbytes worth of memory, and will
// only fail to do so if the heap is exhausted for now.
func (p *pageAlloc) scavenge(nbytes uintptr, shouldStop func() bool, force bool) uintptr {
released := uintptr(0)
for released < nbytes {
ci, pageIdx := p.scav.index.find(force)
if ci == 0 {
systemstack(func() {
released += p.scavengeOne(ci, pageIdx, nbytes-released)
if shouldStop != nil && shouldStop() {
return released
// printScavTrace prints a scavenge trace line to standard error.
// released should be the amount of memory released since the last time this
// was called, and forced indicates whether the scavenge was forced by the
// application.
// scavenger.lock must be held.
func printScavTrace(releasedBg, releasedEager uintptr, forced bool) {
print("scav ",
releasedBg>>10, " KiB work (bg), ",
releasedEager>>10, " KiB work (eager), ",
gcController.heapReleased.load()>>10, " KiB now, ",
(gcController.heapInUse.load()*100)/heapRetained(), "% util",
if forced {
print(" (forced)")
} else if scavenger.printControllerReset {
print(" [controller reset]")
scavenger.printControllerReset = false
// scavengeOne walks over the chunk at chunk index ci and searches for
// a contiguous run of pages to scavenge. It will try to scavenge
// at most max bytes at once, but may scavenge more to avoid
// breaking huge pages. Once it scavenges some memory it returns
// how much it scavenged in bytes.
// searchIdx is the page index to start searching from in ci.
// Returns the number of bytes scavenged.
// Must run on the systemstack because it acquires p.mheapLock.
func (p *pageAlloc) scavengeOne(ci chunkIdx, searchIdx uint, max uintptr) uintptr {
// Calculate the maximum number of pages to scavenge.
// This should be alignUp(max, pageSize) / pageSize but max can and will
// be ^uintptr(0), so we need to be very careful not to overflow here.
// Rather than use alignUp, calculate the number of pages rounded down
// first, then add back one if necessary.
maxPages := max / pageSize
if max%pageSize != 0 {
// Calculate the minimum number of pages we can scavenge.
// Because we can only scavenge whole physical pages, we must
// ensure that we scavenge at least minPages each time, aligned
// to minPages*pageSize.
minPages := physPageSize / pageSize
if minPages < 1 {
minPages = 1
if p.summary[len(p.summary)-1][ci].max() >= uint(minPages) {
// We only bother looking for a candidate if there at least
// minPages free pages at all.
base, npages := p.chunkOf(ci).findScavengeCandidate(searchIdx, minPages, maxPages)
// If we found something, scavenge it and return!
if npages != 0 {
// Compute the full address for the start of the range.
addr := chunkBase(ci) + uintptr(base)*pageSize
// Mark the range we're about to scavenge as allocated, because
// we don't want any allocating goroutines to grab it while
// the scavenging is in progress. Be careful here -- just do the
// bare minimum to avoid stepping on our own scavenging stats.
p.chunkOf(ci).allocRange(base, npages)
p.update(addr, uintptr(npages), true, true)
// With that done, it's safe to unlock.
if !p.test {
// Only perform sys* operations if we're not in a test.
// It's dangerous to do so otherwise.
sysUnused(unsafe.Pointer(addr), uintptr(npages)*pageSize)
// Update global accounting only when not in test, otherwise
// the runtime's accounting will be wrong.
nbytes := int64(npages * pageSize)
stats := memstats.heapStats.acquire()
atomic.Xaddint64(&stats.committed, -nbytes)
atomic.Xaddint64(&stats.released, nbytes)
// Relock the heap, because now we need to make these pages
// available allocation. Free them back to the page allocator.
if b := (offAddr{addr}); b.lessThan(p.searchAddr) {
p.searchAddr = b
p.chunkOf(ci).free(base, npages)
p.update(addr, uintptr(npages), true, false)
// Mark the range as scavenged.
p.chunkOf(ci).scavenged.setRange(base, npages)
return uintptr(npages) * pageSize
// Mark this chunk as having no free pages.
return 0
// fillAligned returns x but with all zeroes in m-aligned
// groups of m bits set to 1 if any bit in the group is non-zero.
// For example, fillAligned(0x0100a3, 8) == 0xff00ff.
// Note that if m == 1, this is a no-op.
// m must be a power of 2 <= maxPagesPerPhysPage.
func fillAligned(x uint64, m uint) uint64 {
apply := func(x uint64, c uint64) uint64 {
// The technique used it here is derived from
// and extended for more than just bytes (like nibbles
// and uint16s) by using an appropriate constant.
// To summarize the technique, quoting from that page:
// "[It] works by first zeroing the high bits of the [8]
// bytes in the word. Subsequently, it adds a number that
// will result in an overflow to the high bit of a byte if
// any of the low bits were initially set. Next the high
// bits of the original word are ORed with these values;
// thus, the high bit of a byte is set iff any bit in the
// byte was set. Finally, we determine if any of these high
// bits are zero by ORing with ones everywhere except the
// high bits and inverting the result."
return ^((((x & c) + c) | x) | c)
// Transform x to contain a 1 bit at the top of each m-aligned
// group of m zero bits.
switch m {
case 1:
return x
case 2:
x = apply(x, 0x5555555555555555)
case 4:
x = apply(x, 0x7777777777777777)
case 8:
x = apply(x, 0x7f7f7f7f7f7f7f7f)
case 16:
x = apply(x, 0x7fff7fff7fff7fff)
case 32:
x = apply(x, 0x7fffffff7fffffff)
case 64: // == maxPagesPerPhysPage
x = apply(x, 0x7fffffffffffffff)
throw("bad m value")
// Now, the top bit of each m-aligned group in x is set
// that group was all zero in the original x.
// From each group of m bits subtract 1.
// Because we know only the top bits of each
// m-aligned group are set, we know this will
// set each group to have all the bits set except
// the top bit, so just OR with the original
// result to set all the bits.
return ^((x - (x >> (m - 1))) | x)
// findScavengeCandidate returns a start index and a size for this pallocData
// segment which represents a contiguous region of free and unscavenged memory.
// searchIdx indicates the page index within this chunk to start the search, but
// note that findScavengeCandidate searches backwards through the pallocData. As
// a result, it will return the highest scavenge candidate in address order.
// min indicates a hard minimum size and alignment for runs of pages. That is,
// findScavengeCandidate will not return a region smaller than min pages in size,
// or that is min pages or greater in size but not aligned to min. min must be
// a non-zero power of 2 <= maxPagesPerPhysPage.
// max is a hint for how big of a region is desired. If max >= pallocChunkPages, then
// findScavengeCandidate effectively returns entire free and unscavenged regions.
// If max < pallocChunkPages, it may truncate the returned region such that size is
// max. However, findScavengeCandidate may still return a larger region if, for
// example, it chooses to preserve huge pages, or if max is not aligned to min (it
// will round up). That is, even if max is small, the returned size is not guaranteed
// to be equal to max. max is allowed to be less than min, in which case it is as if
// max == min.
func (m *pallocData) findScavengeCandidate(searchIdx uint, minimum, max uintptr) (uint, uint) {
if minimum&(minimum-1) != 0 || minimum == 0 {
print("runtime: min = ", minimum, "\n")
throw("min must be a non-zero power of 2")
} else if minimum > maxPagesPerPhysPage {
print("runtime: min = ", minimum, "\n")
throw("min too large")
// max may not be min-aligned, so we might accidentally truncate to
// a max value which causes us to return a non-min-aligned value.
// To prevent this, align max up to a multiple of min (which is always
// a power of 2). This also prevents max from ever being less than
// min, unless it's zero, so handle that explicitly.
if max == 0 {
max = minimum
} else {
max = alignUp(max, minimum)
i := int(searchIdx / 64)
// Start by quickly skipping over blocks of non-free or scavenged pages.
for ; i >= 0; i-- {
// 1s are scavenged OR non-free => 0s are unscavenged AND free
x := fillAligned(m.scavenged[i]|m.pallocBits[i], uint(minimum))
if x != ^uint64(0) {
if i < 0 {
// Failed to find any free/unscavenged pages.
return 0, 0
// We have something in the 64-bit chunk at i, but it could
// extend further. Loop until we find the extent of it.
// 1s are scavenged OR non-free => 0s are unscavenged AND free
x := fillAligned(m.scavenged[i]|m.pallocBits[i], uint(minimum))
z1 := uint(sys.LeadingZeros64(^x))
run, end := uint(0), uint(i)*64+(64-z1)
if x<<z1 != 0 {
// After shifting out z1 bits, we still have 1s,
// so the run ends inside this word.
run = uint(sys.LeadingZeros64(x << z1))
} else {
// After shifting out z1 bits, we have no more 1s.
// This means the run extends to the bottom of the
// word so it may extend into further words.
run = 64 - z1
for j := i - 1; j >= 0; j-- {
x := fillAligned(m.scavenged[j]|m.pallocBits[j], uint(minimum))
run += uint(sys.LeadingZeros64(x))
if x != 0 {
// The run stopped in this word.
// Split the run we found if it's larger than max but hold on to
// our original length, since we may need it later.
size := min(run, uint(max))
start := end - size
// Each huge page is guaranteed to fit in a single palloc chunk.
// TODO(mknyszek): Support larger huge page sizes.
// TODO(mknyszek): Consider taking pages-per-huge-page as a parameter
// so we can write tests for this.
if physHugePageSize > pageSize && physHugePageSize > physPageSize {
// We have huge pages, so let's ensure we don't break one by scavenging
// over a huge page boundary. If the range [start, start+size) overlaps with
// a free-and-unscavenged huge page, we want to grow the region we scavenge
// to include that huge page.
// Compute the huge page boundary above our candidate.
pagesPerHugePage := physHugePageSize / pageSize
hugePageAbove := uint(alignUp(uintptr(start), pagesPerHugePage))
// If that boundary is within our current candidate, then we may be breaking
// a huge page.
if hugePageAbove <= end {
// Compute the huge page boundary below our candidate.
hugePageBelow := uint(alignDown(uintptr(start), pagesPerHugePage))
if hugePageBelow >= end-run {
// We're in danger of breaking apart a huge page since start+size crosses
// a huge page boundary and rounding down start to the nearest huge
// page boundary is included in the full run we found. Include the entire
// huge page in the bound by rounding down to the huge page size.
size = size + (start - hugePageBelow)
start = hugePageBelow
return start, size
// scavengeIndex is a structure for efficiently managing which pageAlloc chunks have
// memory available to scavenge.
type scavengeIndex struct {
// chunks is a scavChunkData-per-chunk structure that indicates the presence of pages
// available for scavenging. Updates to the index are serialized by the pageAlloc lock.
// It tracks chunk occupancy and a generation counter per chunk. If a chunk's occupancy
// never exceeds pallocChunkDensePages over the course of a single GC cycle, the chunk
// becomes eligible for scavenging on the next cycle. If a chunk ever hits this density
// threshold it immediately becomes unavailable for scavenging in the current cycle as
// well as the next.
// [min, max) represents the range of chunks that is safe to access (i.e. will not cause
// a fault). As an optimization minHeapIdx represents the true minimum chunk that has been
// mapped, since min is likely rounded down to include the system page containing minHeapIdx.
// For a chunk size of 4 MiB this structure will only use 2 MiB for a 1 TiB contiguous heap.
chunks []atomicScavChunkData
min, max atomic.Uintptr
minHeapIdx atomic.Uintptr
// searchAddr* is the maximum address (in the offset address space, so we have a linear
// view of the address space; see mranges.go:offAddr) containing memory available to
// scavenge. It is a hint to the find operation to avoid O(n^2) behavior in repeated lookups.
// searchAddr* is always inclusive and should be the base address of the highest runtime
// page available for scavenging.
// searchAddrForce is managed by find and free.
// searchAddrBg is managed by find and nextGen.
// Normally, find monotonically decreases searchAddr* as it finds no more free pages to
// scavenge. However, mark, when marking a new chunk at an index greater than the current
// searchAddr, sets searchAddr to the *negative* index into chunks of that page. The trick here
// is that concurrent calls to find will fail to monotonically decrease searchAddr*, and so they
// won't barge over new memory becoming available to scavenge. Furthermore, this ensures
// that some future caller of find *must* observe the new high index. That caller
// (or any other racing with it), then makes searchAddr positive before continuing, bringing
// us back to our monotonically decreasing steady-state.
// A pageAlloc lock serializes updates between min, max, and searchAddr, so abs(searchAddr)
// is always guaranteed to be >= min and < max (converted to heap addresses).
// searchAddrBg is increased only on each new generation and is mainly used by the
// background scavenger and heap-growth scavenging. searchAddrForce is increased continuously
// as memory gets freed and is mainly used by eager memory reclaim such as debug.FreeOSMemory
// and scavenging to maintain the memory limit.
searchAddrBg atomicOffAddr
searchAddrForce atomicOffAddr
// freeHWM is the highest address (in offset address space) that was freed
// this generation.
freeHWM offAddr
// Generation counter. Updated by nextGen at the end of each mark phase.
gen uint32
// test indicates whether or not we're in a test.
test bool
// init initializes the scavengeIndex.
// Returns the amount added to sysStat.
func (s *scavengeIndex) init(test bool, sysStat *sysMemStat) uintptr {
s.freeHWM = minOffAddr
s.test = test
return s.sysInit(test, sysStat)
// sysGrow updates the index's backing store in response to a heap growth.
// Returns the amount of memory added to sysStat.
func (s *scavengeIndex) grow(base, limit uintptr, sysStat *sysMemStat) uintptr {
// Update minHeapIdx. Note that even if there's no mapping work to do,
// we may still have a new, lower minimum heap address.
minHeapIdx := s.minHeapIdx.Load()
if baseIdx := uintptr(chunkIndex(base)); minHeapIdx == 0 || baseIdx < minHeapIdx {
return s.sysGrow(base, limit, sysStat)
// find returns the highest chunk index that may contain pages available to scavenge.
// It also returns an offset to start searching in the highest chunk.
func (s *scavengeIndex) find(force bool) (chunkIdx, uint) {
cursor := &s.searchAddrBg
if force {
cursor = &s.searchAddrForce
searchAddr, marked := cursor.Load()
if searchAddr == minOffAddr.addr() {
// We got a cleared search addr.
return 0, 0
// Starting from searchAddr's chunk, iterate until we find a chunk with pages to scavenge.
gen := s.gen
min := chunkIdx(s.minHeapIdx.Load())
start := chunkIndex(searchAddr)
// N.B. We'll never map the 0'th chunk, so minHeapIdx ensures this loop overflow.
for i := start; i >= min; i-- {
// Skip over chunks.
if !s.chunks[i].load().shouldScavenge(gen, force) {
// We're still scavenging this chunk.
if i == start {
return i, chunkPageIndex(searchAddr)
// Try to reduce searchAddr to newSearchAddr.
newSearchAddr := chunkBase(i) + pallocChunkBytes - pageSize
if marked {
// Attempt to be the first one to decrease the searchAddr
// after an increase. If we fail, that means there was another
// increase, or somebody else got to it before us. Either way,
// it doesn't matter. We may lose some performance having an
// incorrect search address, but it's far more important that
// we don't miss updates.
cursor.StoreUnmark(searchAddr, newSearchAddr)
} else {
// Decrease searchAddr.
return i, pallocChunkPages - 1
// Clear searchAddr, because we've exhausted the heap.
return 0, 0
// alloc updates metadata for chunk at index ci with the fact that
// an allocation of npages occurred. It also eagerly attempts to collapse
// the chunk's memory into hugepage if the chunk has become sufficiently
// dense and we're not allocating the whole chunk at once (which suggests
// the allocation is part of a bigger one and it's probably not worth
// eagerly collapsing).
// alloc may only run concurrently with find.
func (s *scavengeIndex) alloc(ci chunkIdx, npages uint) {
sc := s.chunks[ci].load()
sc.alloc(npages, s.gen)
// TODO(mknyszek): Consider eagerly backing memory with huge pages
// here and track whether we believe this chunk is backed by huge pages.
// In the past we've attempted to use sysHugePageCollapse (which uses
// MADV_COLLAPSE on Linux, and is unsupported elswhere) for this purpose,
// but that caused performance issues in production environments.
// free updates metadata for chunk at index ci with the fact that
// a free of npages occurred.
// free may only run concurrently with find.
func (s *scavengeIndex) free(ci chunkIdx, page, npages uint) {
sc := s.chunks[ci].load(), s.gen)
// Update scavenge search addresses.
addr := chunkBase(ci) + uintptr(page+npages-1)*pageSize
if s.freeHWM.lessThan(offAddr{addr}) {
s.freeHWM = offAddr{addr}
// N.B. Because free is serialized, it's not necessary to do a
// full CAS here. free only ever increases searchAddr, while
// find only ever decreases it. Since we only ever race with
// decreases, even if the value we loaded is stale, the actual
// value will never be larger.
searchAddr, _ := s.searchAddrForce.Load()
if (offAddr{searchAddr}).lessThan(offAddr{addr}) {
// nextGen moves the scavenger forward one generation. Must be called
// once per GC cycle, but may be called more often to force more memory
// to be released.
// nextGen may only run concurrently with find.
func (s *scavengeIndex) nextGen() {
searchAddr, _ := s.searchAddrBg.Load()
if (offAddr{searchAddr}).lessThan(s.freeHWM) {
s.freeHWM = minOffAddr
// setEmpty marks that the scavenger has finished looking at ci
// for now to prevent the scavenger from getting stuck looking
// at the same chunk.
// setEmpty may only run concurrently with find.
func (s *scavengeIndex) setEmpty(ci chunkIdx) {
val := s.chunks[ci].load()
// atomicScavChunkData is an atomic wrapper around a scavChunkData
// that stores it in its packed form.
type atomicScavChunkData struct {
value atomic.Uint64
// load loads and unpacks a scavChunkData.
func (sc *atomicScavChunkData) load() scavChunkData {
return unpackScavChunkData(sc.value.Load())
// store packs and writes a new scavChunkData. store must be serialized
// with other calls to store.
func (sc *atomicScavChunkData) store(ssc scavChunkData) {
// scavChunkData tracks information about a palloc chunk for
// scavenging. It packs well into 64 bits.
// The zero value always represents a valid newly-grown chunk.
type scavChunkData struct {
// inUse indicates how many pages in this chunk are currently
// allocated.
// Only the first 10 bits are used.
inUse uint16
// lastInUse indicates how many pages in this chunk were allocated
// when we transitioned from gen-1 to gen.
// Only the first 10 bits are used.
lastInUse uint16
// gen is the generation counter from a scavengeIndex from the
// last time this scavChunkData was updated.
gen uint32
// scavChunkFlags represents additional flags
// Note: only 6 bits are available.
// unpackScavChunkData unpacks a scavChunkData from a uint64.
func unpackScavChunkData(sc uint64) scavChunkData {
return scavChunkData{
inUse: uint16(sc),
lastInUse: uint16(sc>>16) & scavChunkInUseMask,
gen: uint32(sc >> 32),
scavChunkFlags: scavChunkFlags(uint8(sc>>(16+logScavChunkInUseMax)) & scavChunkFlagsMask),
// pack returns sc packed into a uint64.
func (sc scavChunkData) pack() uint64 {
return uint64(sc.inUse) |
(uint64(sc.lastInUse) << 16) |
(uint64(sc.scavChunkFlags) << (16 + logScavChunkInUseMax)) |
(uint64(sc.gen) << 32)
const (
// scavChunkHasFree indicates whether the chunk has anything left to
// scavenge. This is the opposite of "empty," used elsewhere in this
// file. The reason we say "HasFree" here is so the zero value is
// correct for a newly-grown chunk. (New memory is scavenged.)
scavChunkHasFree scavChunkFlags = 1 << iota
// scavChunkMaxFlags is the maximum number of flags we can have, given how
// a scavChunkData is packed into 8 bytes.
scavChunkMaxFlags = 6
scavChunkFlagsMask = (1 << scavChunkMaxFlags) - 1
// logScavChunkInUseMax is the number of bits needed to represent the number
// of pages allocated in a single chunk. This is 1 more than log2 of the
// number of pages in the chunk because we need to represent a fully-allocated
// chunk.
logScavChunkInUseMax = logPallocChunkPages + 1
scavChunkInUseMask = (1 << logScavChunkInUseMax) - 1
// scavChunkFlags is a set of bit-flags for the scavenger for each palloc chunk.
type scavChunkFlags uint8
// isEmpty returns true if the hasFree flag is unset.
func (sc *scavChunkFlags) isEmpty() bool {
return (*sc)&scavChunkHasFree == 0
// setEmpty clears the hasFree flag.
func (sc *scavChunkFlags) setEmpty() {
*sc &^= scavChunkHasFree
// setNonEmpty sets the hasFree flag.
func (sc *scavChunkFlags) setNonEmpty() {
*sc |= scavChunkHasFree
// shouldScavenge returns true if the corresponding chunk should be interrogated
// by the scavenger.
func (sc scavChunkData) shouldScavenge(currGen uint32, force bool) bool {
if sc.isEmpty() {
// Nothing to scavenge.
return false
if force {
// We're forcing the memory to be scavenged.
return true
if sc.gen == currGen {
// In the current generation, if either the current or last generation
// is dense, then skip scavenging. Inverting that, we should scavenge
// if both the current and last generation were not dense.
return sc.inUse < scavChunkHiOccPages && sc.lastInUse < scavChunkHiOccPages
// If we're one or more generations ahead, we know inUse represents the current
// state of the chunk, since otherwise it would've been updated already.
return sc.inUse < scavChunkHiOccPages
// alloc updates sc given that npages were allocated in the corresponding chunk.
func (sc *scavChunkData) alloc(npages uint, newGen uint32) {
if uint(sc.inUse)+npages > pallocChunkPages {
print("runtime: inUse=", sc.inUse, " npages=", npages, "\n")
throw("too many pages allocated in chunk?")
if sc.gen != newGen {
sc.lastInUse = sc.inUse
sc.gen = newGen
sc.inUse += uint16(npages)
if sc.inUse == pallocChunkPages {
// There's nothing for the scavenger to take from here.
// free updates sc given that npages was freed in the corresponding chunk.
func (sc *scavChunkData) free(npages uint, newGen uint32) {
if uint(sc.inUse) < npages {
print("runtime: inUse=", sc.inUse, " npages=", npages, "\n")
throw("allocated pages below zero?")
if sc.gen != newGen {
sc.lastInUse = sc.inUse
sc.gen = newGen
sc.inUse -= uint16(npages)
// The scavenger can no longer be done with this chunk now that
// new memory has been freed into it.
type piController struct {
kp float64 // Proportional constant.
ti float64 // Integral time constant.
tt float64 // Reset time.
min, max float64 // Output boundaries.
// PI controller state.
errIntegral float64 // Integral of the error from t=0 to now.
// Error flags.
errOverflow bool // Set if errIntegral ever overflowed.
inputOverflow bool // Set if an operation with the input overflowed.
// next provides a new sample to the controller.
// input is the sample, setpoint is the desired point, and period is how much
// time (in whatever unit makes the most sense) has passed since the last sample.
// Returns a new value for the variable it's controlling, and whether the operation
// completed successfully. One reason this might fail is if error has been growing
// in an unbounded manner, to the point of overflow.
// In the specific case of an error overflow occurs, the errOverflow field will be
// set and the rest of the controller's internal state will be fully reset.
func (c *piController) next(input, setpoint, period float64) (float64, bool) {
// Compute the raw output value.
prop := * (setpoint - input)
rawOutput := prop + c.errIntegral
// Clamp rawOutput into output.
output := rawOutput
if isInf(output) || isNaN(output) {
// The input had a large enough magnitude that either it was already
// overflowed, or some operation with it overflowed.
// Set a flag and reset. That's the safest thing to do.
c.inputOverflow = true
return c.min, false
if output < c.min {
output = c.min
} else if output > c.max {
output = c.max
// Update the controller's state.
if c.ti != 0 && != 0 {
c.errIntegral += (*period/c.ti)*(setpoint-input) + (period/*(output-rawOutput)
if isInf(c.errIntegral) || isNaN(c.errIntegral) {
// So much error has accumulated that we managed to overflow.
// The assumptions around the controller have likely broken down.
// Set a flag and reset. That's the safest thing to do.
c.errOverflow = true
return c.min, false
return output, true
// reset resets the controller state, except for controller error flags.
func (c *piController) reset() {
c.errIntegral = 0