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// Copyright 2020 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
package runtime
import (
// A spanSet is a set of *mspans.
// spanSet is safe for concurrent push and pop operations.
type spanSet struct {
// A spanSet is a two-level data structure consisting of a
// growable spine that points to fixed-sized blocks. The spine
// can be accessed without locks, but adding a block or
// growing it requires taking the spine lock.
// Because each mspan covers at least 8K of heap and takes at
// most 8 bytes in the spanSet, the growth of the spine is
// quite limited.
// The spine and all blocks are allocated off-heap, which
// allows this to be used in the memory manager and avoids the
// need for write barriers on all of these. spanSetBlocks are
// managed in a pool, though never freed back to the operating
// system. We never release spine memory because there could be
// concurrent lock-free access and we're likely to reuse it
// anyway. (In principle, we could do this during STW.)
spineLock mutex
spine unsafe.Pointer // *[N]*spanSetBlock, accessed atomically
spineLen uintptr // Spine array length, accessed atomically
spineCap uintptr // Spine array cap, accessed under lock
// index is the head and tail of the spanSet in a single field.
// The head and the tail both represent an index into the logical
// concatenation of all blocks, with the head always behind or
// equal to the tail (indicating an empty set). This field is
// always accessed atomically.
// The head and the tail are only 32 bits wide, which means we
// can only support up to 2^32 pushes before a reset. If every
// span in the heap were stored in this set, and each span were
// the minimum size (1 runtime page, 8 KiB), then roughly the
// smallest heap which would be unrepresentable is 32 TiB in size.
index headTailIndex
const (
spanSetBlockEntries = 512 // 4KB on 64-bit
spanSetInitSpineCap = 256 // Enough for 1GB heap on 64-bit
type spanSetBlock struct {
// Free spanSetBlocks are managed via a lock-free stack.
// popped is the number of pop operations that have occurred on
// this block. This number is used to help determine when a block
// may be safely recycled.
popped uint32
// spans is the set of spans in this block.
spans [spanSetBlockEntries]*mspan
// push adds span s to buffer b. push is safe to call concurrently
// with other push and pop operations.
func (b *spanSet) push(s *mspan) {
// Obtain our slot.
cursor := uintptr(b.index.incTail().tail() - 1)
top, bottom := cursor/spanSetBlockEntries, cursor%spanSetBlockEntries
// Do we need to add a block?
spineLen := atomic.Loaduintptr(&b.spineLen)
var block *spanSetBlock
if top < spineLen {
spine := atomic.Loadp(unsafe.Pointer(&b.spine))
blockp := add(spine, sys.PtrSize*top)
block = (*spanSetBlock)(atomic.Loadp(blockp))
} else {
// Add a new block to the spine, potentially growing
// the spine.
// spineLen cannot change until we release the lock,
// but may have changed while we were waiting.
spineLen = atomic.Loaduintptr(&b.spineLen)
if top < spineLen {
goto retry
if spineLen == b.spineCap {
// Grow the spine.
newCap := b.spineCap * 2
if newCap == 0 {
newCap = spanSetInitSpineCap
newSpine := persistentalloc(newCap*sys.PtrSize, cpu.CacheLineSize, &memstats.gcMiscSys)
if b.spineCap != 0 {
// Blocks are allocated off-heap, so
// no write barriers.
memmove(newSpine, b.spine, b.spineCap*sys.PtrSize)
// Spine is allocated off-heap, so no write barrier.
atomic.StorepNoWB(unsafe.Pointer(&b.spine), newSpine)
b.spineCap = newCap
// We can't immediately free the old spine
// since a concurrent push with a lower index
// could still be reading from it. We let it
// leak because even a 1TB heap would waste
// less than 2MB of memory on old spines. If
// this is a problem, we could free old spines
// during STW.
// Allocate a new block from the pool.
block = spanSetBlockPool.alloc()
// Add it to the spine.
blockp := add(b.spine, sys.PtrSize*top)
// Blocks are allocated off-heap, so no write barrier.
atomic.StorepNoWB(blockp, unsafe.Pointer(block))
atomic.Storeuintptr(&b.spineLen, spineLen+1)
// We have a block. Insert the span atomically, since there may be
// concurrent readers via the block API.
atomic.StorepNoWB(unsafe.Pointer(&block.spans[bottom]), unsafe.Pointer(s))
// pop removes and returns a span from buffer b, or nil if b is empty.
// pop is safe to call concurrently with other pop and push operations.
func (b *spanSet) pop() *mspan {
var head, tail uint32
for {
headtail := b.index.load()
head, tail = headtail.split()
if head >= tail {
// The buf is empty, as far as we can tell.
return nil
// Check if the head position we want to claim is actually
// backed by a block.
spineLen := atomic.Loaduintptr(&b.spineLen)
if spineLen <= uintptr(head)/spanSetBlockEntries {
// We're racing with a spine growth and the allocation of
// a new block (and maybe a new spine!), and trying to grab
// the span at the index which is currently being pushed.
// Instead of spinning, let's just notify the caller that
// there's nothing currently here. Spinning on this is
// almost definitely not worth it.
return nil
// Try to claim the current head by CASing in an updated head.
// This may fail transiently due to a push which modifies the
// tail, so keep trying while the head isn't changing.
want := head
for want == head {
if b.index.cas(headtail, makeHeadTailIndex(want+1, tail)) {
break claimLoop
headtail = b.index.load()
head, tail = headtail.split()
// We failed to claim the spot we were after and the head changed,
// meaning a popper got ahead of us. Try again from the top because
// the buf may not be empty.
top, bottom := head/spanSetBlockEntries, head%spanSetBlockEntries
// We may be reading a stale spine pointer, but because the length
// grows monotonically and we've already verified it, we'll definitely
// be reading from a valid block.
spine := atomic.Loadp(unsafe.Pointer(&b.spine))
blockp := add(spine, sys.PtrSize*uintptr(top))
// Given that the spine length is correct, we know we will never
// see a nil block here, since the length is always updated after
// the block is set.
block := (*spanSetBlock)(atomic.Loadp(blockp))
s := (*mspan)(atomic.Loadp(unsafe.Pointer(&block.spans[bottom])))
for s == nil {
// We raced with the span actually being set, but given that we
// know a block for this span exists, the race window here is
// extremely small. Try again.
s = (*mspan)(atomic.Loadp(unsafe.Pointer(&block.spans[bottom])))
// Clear the pointer. This isn't strictly necessary, but defensively
// avoids accidentally re-using blocks which could lead to memory
// corruption. This way, we'll get a nil pointer access instead.
atomic.StorepNoWB(unsafe.Pointer(&block.spans[bottom]), nil)
// Increase the popped count. If we are the last possible popper
// in the block (note that bottom need not equal spanSetBlockEntries-1
// due to races) then it's our resposibility to free the block.
// If we increment popped to spanSetBlockEntries, we can be sure that
// we're the last popper for this block, and it's thus safe to free it.
// Every other popper must have crossed this barrier (and thus finished
// popping its corresponding mspan) by the time we get here. Because
// we're the last popper, we also don't have to worry about concurrent
// pushers (there can't be any). Note that we may not be the popper
// which claimed the last slot in the block, we're just the last one
// to finish popping.
if atomic.Xadd(&block.popped, 1) == spanSetBlockEntries {
// Clear the block's pointer.
atomic.StorepNoWB(blockp, nil)
// Return the block to the block pool.
return s
// reset resets a spanSet which is empty. It will also clean up
// any left over blocks.
// Throws if the buf is not empty.
// reset may not be called concurrently with any other operations
// on the span set.
func (b *spanSet) reset() {
head, tail := b.index.load().split()
if head < tail {
print("head = ", head, ", tail = ", tail, "\n")
throw("attempt to clear non-empty span set")
top := head / spanSetBlockEntries
if uintptr(top) < b.spineLen {
// If the head catches up to the tail and the set is empty,
// we may not clean up the block containing the head and tail
// since it may be pushed into again. In order to avoid leaking
// memory since we're going to reset the head and tail, clean
// up such a block now, if it exists.
blockp := (**spanSetBlock)(add(b.spine, sys.PtrSize*uintptr(top)))
block := *blockp
if block != nil {
// Sanity check the popped value.
if block.popped == 0 {
// popped should never be zero because that means we have
// pushed at least one value but not yet popped if this
// block pointer is not nil.
throw("span set block with unpopped elements found in reset")
if block.popped == spanSetBlockEntries {
// popped should also never be equal to spanSetBlockEntries
// because the last popper should have made the block pointer
// in this slot nil.
throw("fully empty unfreed span set block found in reset")
// Clear the pointer to the block.
atomic.StorepNoWB(unsafe.Pointer(blockp), nil)
// Return the block to the block pool.
atomic.Storeuintptr(&b.spineLen, 0)
// spanSetBlockPool is a global pool of spanSetBlocks.
var spanSetBlockPool spanSetBlockAlloc
// spanSetBlockAlloc represents a concurrent pool of spanSetBlocks.
type spanSetBlockAlloc struct {
stack lfstack
// alloc tries to grab a spanSetBlock out of the pool, and if it fails
// persistentallocs a new one and returns it.
func (p *spanSetBlockAlloc) alloc() *spanSetBlock {
if s := (*spanSetBlock)(p.stack.pop()); s != nil {
return s
return (*spanSetBlock)(persistentalloc(unsafe.Sizeof(spanSetBlock{}), cpu.CacheLineSize, &memstats.gcMiscSys))
// free returns a spanSetBlock back to the pool.
func (p *spanSetBlockAlloc) free(block *spanSetBlock) {
atomic.Store(&block.popped, 0)
// haidTailIndex represents a combined 32-bit head and 32-bit tail
// of a queue into a single 64-bit value.
type headTailIndex uint64
// makeHeadTailIndex creates a headTailIndex value from a separate
// head and tail.
func makeHeadTailIndex(head, tail uint32) headTailIndex {
return headTailIndex(uint64(head)<<32 | uint64(tail))
// head returns the head of a headTailIndex value.
func (h headTailIndex) head() uint32 {
return uint32(h >> 32)
// tail returns the tail of a headTailIndex value.
func (h headTailIndex) tail() uint32 {
return uint32(h)
// split splits the headTailIndex value into its parts.
func (h headTailIndex) split() (head uint32, tail uint32) {
return h.head(), h.tail()
// load atomically reads a headTailIndex value.
func (h *headTailIndex) load() headTailIndex {
return headTailIndex(atomic.Load64((*uint64)(h)))
// cas atomically compares-and-swaps a headTailIndex value.
func (h *headTailIndex) cas(old, new headTailIndex) bool {
return atomic.Cas64((*uint64)(h), uint64(old), uint64(new))
// incHead atomically increments the head of a headTailIndex.
func (h *headTailIndex) incHead() headTailIndex {
return headTailIndex(atomic.Xadd64((*uint64)(h), (1 << 32)))
// decHead atomically decrements the head of a headTailIndex.
func (h *headTailIndex) decHead() headTailIndex {
return headTailIndex(atomic.Xadd64((*uint64)(h), -(1 << 32)))
// incTail atomically increments the tail of a headTailIndex.
func (h *headTailIndex) incTail() headTailIndex {
ht := headTailIndex(atomic.Xadd64((*uint64)(h), +1))
// Check for overflow.
if ht.tail() == 0 {
print("runtime: head = ", ht.head(), ", tail = ", ht.tail(), "\n")
throw("headTailIndex overflow")
return ht
// reset clears the headTailIndex to (0, 0).
func (h *headTailIndex) reset() {
atomic.Store64((*uint64)(h), 0)