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// Copyright 2013 The Go Authors. All rights reserved.
// Use of this source code is governed by a BSD-style
// license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
// Garbage collector liveness bitmap generation.
// The command line flag -live causes this code to print debug information.
// The levels are:
//
// -live (aka -live=1): print liveness lists as code warnings at safe points
// -live=2: print an assembly listing with liveness annotations
//
// Each level includes the earlier output as well.
package gc
import (
"cmd/compile/internal/ssa"
"cmd/compile/internal/types"
"cmd/internal/obj"
"cmd/internal/objabi"
"crypto/md5"
"fmt"
"strings"
)
// go115ReduceLiveness disables register maps and only produces stack
// maps at call sites.
//
// In Go 1.15, we changed debug call injection to use conservative
// scanning instead of precise pointer maps, so these are no longer
// necessary.
//
// Keep in sync with runtime/preempt.go:go115ReduceLiveness.
const go115ReduceLiveness = true
// OpVarDef is an annotation for the liveness analysis, marking a place
// where a complete initialization (definition) of a variable begins.
// Since the liveness analysis can see initialization of single-word
// variables quite easy, OpVarDef is only needed for multi-word
// variables satisfying isfat(n.Type). For simplicity though, buildssa
// emits OpVarDef regardless of variable width.
//
// An 'OpVarDef x' annotation in the instruction stream tells the liveness
// analysis to behave as though the variable x is being initialized at that
// point in the instruction stream. The OpVarDef must appear before the
// actual (multi-instruction) initialization, and it must also appear after
// any uses of the previous value, if any. For example, if compiling:
//
// x = x[1:]
//
// it is important to generate code like:
//
// base, len, cap = pieces of x[1:]
// OpVarDef x
// x = {base, len, cap}
//
// If instead the generated code looked like:
//
// OpVarDef x
// base, len, cap = pieces of x[1:]
// x = {base, len, cap}
//
// then the liveness analysis would decide the previous value of x was
// unnecessary even though it is about to be used by the x[1:] computation.
// Similarly, if the generated code looked like:
//
// base, len, cap = pieces of x[1:]
// x = {base, len, cap}
// OpVarDef x
//
// then the liveness analysis will not preserve the new value of x, because
// the OpVarDef appears to have "overwritten" it.
//
// OpVarDef is a bit of a kludge to work around the fact that the instruction
// stream is working on single-word values but the liveness analysis
// wants to work on individual variables, which might be multi-word
// aggregates. It might make sense at some point to look into letting
// the liveness analysis work on single-word values as well, although
// there are complications around interface values, slices, and strings,
// all of which cannot be treated as individual words.
//
// OpVarKill is the opposite of OpVarDef: it marks a value as no longer needed,
// even if its address has been taken. That is, an OpVarKill annotation asserts
// that its argument is certainly dead, for use when the liveness analysis
// would not otherwise be able to deduce that fact.
// TODO: get rid of OpVarKill here. It's useful for stack frame allocation
// so the compiler can allocate two temps to the same location. Here it's now
// useless, since the implementation of stack objects.
// BlockEffects summarizes the liveness effects on an SSA block.
type BlockEffects struct {
// Computed during Liveness.prologue using only the content of
// individual blocks:
//
// uevar: upward exposed variables (used before set in block)
// varkill: killed variables (set in block)
uevar varRegVec
varkill varRegVec
// Computed during Liveness.solve using control flow information:
//
// livein: variables live at block entry
// liveout: variables live at block exit
livein varRegVec
liveout varRegVec
}
// A collection of global state used by liveness analysis.
type Liveness struct {
fn *Node
f *ssa.Func
vars []*Node
idx map[*Node]int32
stkptrsize int64
be []BlockEffects
// allUnsafe indicates that all points in this function are
// unsafe-points.
allUnsafe bool
// unsafePoints bit i is set if Value ID i is an unsafe-point
// (preemption is not allowed). Only valid if !allUnsafe.
unsafePoints bvec
// An array with a bit vector for each safe point in the
// current Block during Liveness.epilogue. Indexed in Value
// order for that block. Additionally, for the entry block
// livevars[0] is the entry bitmap. Liveness.compact moves
// these to stackMaps and regMaps.
livevars []varRegVec
// livenessMap maps from safe points (i.e., CALLs) to their
// liveness map indexes.
livenessMap LivenessMap
stackMapSet bvecSet
stackMaps []bvec
regMapSet map[liveRegMask]int
regMaps []liveRegMask
cache progeffectscache
}
// LivenessMap maps from *ssa.Value to LivenessIndex.
type LivenessMap struct {
vals map[ssa.ID]LivenessIndex
// The set of live, pointer-containing variables at the deferreturn
// call (only set when open-coded defers are used).
deferreturn LivenessIndex
}
func (m *LivenessMap) reset() {
if m.vals == nil {
m.vals = make(map[ssa.ID]LivenessIndex)
} else {
for k := range m.vals {
delete(m.vals, k)
}
}
m.deferreturn = LivenessInvalid
}
func (m *LivenessMap) set(v *ssa.Value, i LivenessIndex) {
m.vals[v.ID] = i
}
func (m LivenessMap) Get(v *ssa.Value) LivenessIndex {
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
// All safe-points are in the map, so if v isn't in
// the map, it's an unsafe-point.
if idx, ok := m.vals[v.ID]; ok {
return idx
}
return LivenessInvalid
}
// If v isn't in the map, then it's a "don't care" and not an
// unsafe-point.
if idx, ok := m.vals[v.ID]; ok {
return idx
}
return LivenessIndex{StackMapDontCare, StackMapDontCare, false}
}
// LivenessIndex stores the liveness map information for a Value.
type LivenessIndex struct {
stackMapIndex int
regMapIndex int // only for !go115ReduceLiveness
// isUnsafePoint indicates that this is an unsafe-point.
//
// Note that it's possible for a call Value to have a stack
// map while also being an unsafe-point. This means it cannot
// be preempted at this instruction, but that a preemption or
// stack growth may happen in the called function.
isUnsafePoint bool
}
// LivenessInvalid indicates an unsafe point with no stack map.
var LivenessInvalid = LivenessIndex{StackMapDontCare, StackMapDontCare, true} // only for !go115ReduceLiveness
// StackMapDontCare indicates that the stack map index at a Value
// doesn't matter.
//
// This is a sentinel value that should never be emitted to the PCDATA
// stream. We use -1000 because that's obviously never a valid stack
// index (but -1 is).
const StackMapDontCare = -1000
func (idx LivenessIndex) StackMapValid() bool {
return idx.stackMapIndex != StackMapDontCare
}
func (idx LivenessIndex) RegMapValid() bool {
return idx.regMapIndex != StackMapDontCare
}
type progeffectscache struct {
retuevar []int32
tailuevar []int32
initialized bool
}
// varRegVec contains liveness bitmaps for variables and registers.
type varRegVec struct {
vars bvec
regs liveRegMask
}
func (v *varRegVec) Eq(v2 varRegVec) bool {
return v.vars.Eq(v2.vars) && v.regs == v2.regs
}
func (v *varRegVec) Copy(v2 varRegVec) {
v.vars.Copy(v2.vars)
v.regs = v2.regs
}
func (v *varRegVec) Clear() {
v.vars.Clear()
v.regs = 0
}
func (v *varRegVec) Or(v1, v2 varRegVec) {
v.vars.Or(v1.vars, v2.vars)
v.regs = v1.regs | v2.regs
}
func (v *varRegVec) AndNot(v1, v2 varRegVec) {
v.vars.AndNot(v1.vars, v2.vars)
v.regs = v1.regs &^ v2.regs
}
// livenessShouldTrack reports whether the liveness analysis
// should track the variable n.
// We don't care about variables that have no pointers,
// nor do we care about non-local variables,
// nor do we care about empty structs (handled by the pointer check),
// nor do we care about the fake PAUTOHEAP variables.
func livenessShouldTrack(n *Node) bool {
return n.Op == ONAME && (n.Class() == PAUTO || n.Class() == PPARAM || n.Class() == PPARAMOUT) && n.Type.HasPointers()
}
// getvariables returns the list of on-stack variables that we need to track
// and a map for looking up indices by *Node.
func getvariables(fn *Node) ([]*Node, map[*Node]int32) {
var vars []*Node
for _, n := range fn.Func.Dcl {
if livenessShouldTrack(n) {
vars = append(vars, n)
}
}
idx := make(map[*Node]int32, len(vars))
for i, n := range vars {
idx[n] = int32(i)
}
return vars, idx
}
func (lv *Liveness) initcache() {
if lv.cache.initialized {
Fatalf("liveness cache initialized twice")
return
}
lv.cache.initialized = true
for i, node := range lv.vars {
switch node.Class() {
case PPARAM:
// A return instruction with a p.to is a tail return, which brings
// the stack pointer back up (if it ever went down) and then jumps
// to a new function entirely. That form of instruction must read
// all the parameters for correctness, and similarly it must not
// read the out arguments - they won't be set until the new
// function runs.
lv.cache.tailuevar = append(lv.cache.tailuevar, int32(i))
case PPARAMOUT:
// All results are live at every return point.
// Note that this point is after escaping return values
// are copied back to the stack using their PAUTOHEAP references.
lv.cache.retuevar = append(lv.cache.retuevar, int32(i))
}
}
}
// A liveEffect is a set of flags that describe an instruction's
// liveness effects on a variable.
//
// The possible flags are:
// uevar - used by the instruction
// varkill - killed by the instruction (set)
// A kill happens after the use (for an instruction that updates a value, for example).
type liveEffect int
const (
uevar liveEffect = 1 << iota
varkill
)
// valueEffects returns the index of a variable in lv.vars and the
// liveness effects v has on that variable.
// If v does not affect any tracked variables, it returns -1, 0.
func (lv *Liveness) valueEffects(v *ssa.Value) (int32, liveEffect) {
n, e := affectedNode(v)
if e == 0 || n == nil || n.Op != ONAME { // cheapest checks first
return -1, 0
}
// AllocFrame has dropped unused variables from
// lv.fn.Func.Dcl, but they might still be referenced by
// OpVarFoo pseudo-ops. Ignore them to prevent "lost track of
// variable" ICEs (issue 19632).
switch v.Op {
case ssa.OpVarDef, ssa.OpVarKill, ssa.OpVarLive, ssa.OpKeepAlive:
if !n.Name.Used() {
return -1, 0
}
}
var effect liveEffect
// Read is a read, obviously.
//
// Addr is a read also, as any subsequent holder of the pointer must be able
// to see all the values (including initialization) written so far.
// This also prevents a variable from "coming back from the dead" and presenting
// stale pointers to the garbage collector. See issue 28445.
if e&(ssa.SymRead|ssa.SymAddr) != 0 {
effect |= uevar
}
if e&ssa.SymWrite != 0 && (!isfat(n.Type) || v.Op == ssa.OpVarDef) {
effect |= varkill
}
if effect == 0 {
return -1, 0
}
if pos, ok := lv.idx[n]; ok {
return pos, effect
}
return -1, 0
}
// affectedNode returns the *Node affected by v
func affectedNode(v *ssa.Value) (*Node, ssa.SymEffect) {
// Special cases.
switch v.Op {
case ssa.OpLoadReg:
n, _ := AutoVar(v.Args[0])
return n, ssa.SymRead
case ssa.OpStoreReg:
n, _ := AutoVar(v)
return n, ssa.SymWrite
case ssa.OpVarLive:
return v.Aux.(*Node), ssa.SymRead
case ssa.OpVarDef, ssa.OpVarKill:
return v.Aux.(*Node), ssa.SymWrite
case ssa.OpKeepAlive:
n, _ := AutoVar(v.Args[0])
return n, ssa.SymRead
}
e := v.Op.SymEffect()
if e == 0 {
return nil, 0
}
switch a := v.Aux.(type) {
case nil, *obj.LSym:
// ok, but no node
return nil, e
case *Node:
return a, e
default:
Fatalf("weird aux: %s", v.LongString())
return nil, e
}
}
// regEffects returns the registers affected by v.
func (lv *Liveness) regEffects(v *ssa.Value) (uevar, kill liveRegMask) {
if go115ReduceLiveness {
return 0, 0
}
if v.Op == ssa.OpPhi {
// All phi node arguments must come from the same
// register and the result must also go to that
// register, so there's no overall effect.
return 0, 0
}
addLocs := func(mask liveRegMask, v *ssa.Value, ptrOnly bool) liveRegMask {
if int(v.ID) >= len(lv.f.RegAlloc) {
// v has no allocated registers.
return mask
}
loc := lv.f.RegAlloc[v.ID]
if loc == nil {
// v has no allocated registers.
return mask
}
if v.Op == ssa.OpGetG {
// GetG represents the G register, which is a
// pointer, but not a valid GC register. The
// current G is always reachable, so it's okay
// to ignore this register.
return mask
}
// Collect registers and types from v's location.
var regs [2]*ssa.Register
nreg := 0
switch loc := loc.(type) {
case ssa.LocalSlot:
return mask
case *ssa.Register:
if ptrOnly && !v.Type.HasPointers() {
return mask
}
regs[0] = loc
nreg = 1
case ssa.LocPair:
// The value will have TTUPLE type, and the
// children are nil or *ssa.Register.
if v.Type.Etype != types.TTUPLE {
v.Fatalf("location pair %s has non-tuple type %v", loc, v.Type)
}
for i, loc1 := range &loc {
if loc1 == nil {
continue
}
if ptrOnly && !v.Type.FieldType(i).HasPointers() {
continue
}
regs[nreg] = loc1.(*ssa.Register)
nreg++
}
default:
v.Fatalf("weird RegAlloc location: %s (%T)", loc, loc)
}
// Add register locations to vars.
for _, reg := range regs[:nreg] {
if reg.GCNum() == -1 {
if ptrOnly {
v.Fatalf("pointer in non-pointer register %v", reg)
} else {
continue
}
}
mask |= 1 << uint(reg.GCNum())
}
return mask
}
// v clobbers all registers it writes to (whether or not the
// write is pointer-typed).
kill = addLocs(0, v, false)
for _, arg := range v.Args {
// v uses all registers is reads from, but we only
// care about marking those containing pointers.
uevar = addLocs(uevar, arg, true)
}
return uevar, kill
}
type liveRegMask uint32 // only if !go115ReduceLiveness
func (m liveRegMask) niceString(config *ssa.Config) string {
if m == 0 {
return "<none>"
}
str := ""
for i, reg := range config.GCRegMap {
if m&(1<<uint(i)) != 0 {
if str != "" {
str += ","
}
str += reg.String()
}
}
return str
}
type livenessFuncCache struct {
be []BlockEffects
livenessMap LivenessMap
}
// Constructs a new liveness structure used to hold the global state of the
// liveness computation. The cfg argument is a slice of *BasicBlocks and the
// vars argument is a slice of *Nodes.
func newliveness(fn *Node, f *ssa.Func, vars []*Node, idx map[*Node]int32, stkptrsize int64) *Liveness {
lv := &Liveness{
fn: fn,
f: f,
vars: vars,
idx: idx,
stkptrsize: stkptrsize,
regMapSet: make(map[liveRegMask]int),
}
// Significant sources of allocation are kept in the ssa.Cache
// and reused. Surprisingly, the bit vectors themselves aren't
// a major source of allocation, but the liveness maps are.
if lc, _ := f.Cache.Liveness.(*livenessFuncCache); lc == nil {
// Prep the cache so liveness can fill it later.
f.Cache.Liveness = new(livenessFuncCache)
} else {
if cap(lc.be) >= f.NumBlocks() {
lv.be = lc.be[:f.NumBlocks()]
}
lv.livenessMap = LivenessMap{vals: lc.livenessMap.vals, deferreturn: LivenessInvalid}
lc.livenessMap.vals = nil
}
if lv.be == nil {
lv.be = make([]BlockEffects, f.NumBlocks())
}
nblocks := int32(len(f.Blocks))
nvars := int32(len(vars))
bulk := bvbulkalloc(nvars, nblocks*7)
for _, b := range f.Blocks {
be := lv.blockEffects(b)
be.uevar = varRegVec{vars: bulk.next()}
be.varkill = varRegVec{vars: bulk.next()}
be.livein = varRegVec{vars: bulk.next()}
be.liveout = varRegVec{vars: bulk.next()}
}
lv.livenessMap.reset()
lv.markUnsafePoints()
return lv
}
func (lv *Liveness) blockEffects(b *ssa.Block) *BlockEffects {
return &lv.be[b.ID]
}
// NOTE: The bitmap for a specific type t could be cached in t after
// the first run and then simply copied into bv at the correct offset
// on future calls with the same type t.
func onebitwalktype1(t *types.Type, off int64, bv bvec) {
if t.Align > 0 && off&int64(t.Align-1) != 0 {
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: invalid initial alignment: type %v has alignment %d, but offset is %v", t, t.Align, off)
}
if !t.HasPointers() {
// Note: this case ensures that pointers to go:notinheap types
// are not considered pointers by garbage collection and stack copying.
return
}
switch t.Etype {
case TPTR, TUNSAFEPTR, TFUNC, TCHAN, TMAP:
if off&int64(Widthptr-1) != 0 {
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: invalid alignment, %v", t)
}
bv.Set(int32(off / int64(Widthptr))) // pointer
case TSTRING:
// struct { byte *str; intgo len; }
if off&int64(Widthptr-1) != 0 {
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: invalid alignment, %v", t)
}
bv.Set(int32(off / int64(Widthptr))) //pointer in first slot
case TINTER:
// struct { Itab *tab; void *data; }
// or, when isnilinter(t)==true:
// struct { Type *type; void *data; }
if off&int64(Widthptr-1) != 0 {
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: invalid alignment, %v", t)
}
// The first word of an interface is a pointer, but we don't
// treat it as such.
// 1. If it is a non-empty interface, the pointer points to an itab
// which is always in persistentalloc space.
// 2. If it is an empty interface, the pointer points to a _type.
// a. If it is a compile-time-allocated type, it points into
// the read-only data section.
// b. If it is a reflect-allocated type, it points into the Go heap.
// Reflect is responsible for keeping a reference to
// the underlying type so it won't be GCd.
// If we ever have a moving GC, we need to change this for 2b (as
// well as scan itabs to update their itab._type fields).
bv.Set(int32(off/int64(Widthptr) + 1)) // pointer in second slot
case TSLICE:
// struct { byte *array; uintgo len; uintgo cap; }
if off&int64(Widthptr-1) != 0 {
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: invalid TARRAY alignment, %v", t)
}
bv.Set(int32(off / int64(Widthptr))) // pointer in first slot (BitsPointer)
case TARRAY:
elt := t.Elem()
if elt.Width == 0 {
// Short-circuit for #20739.
break
}
for i := int64(0); i < t.NumElem(); i++ {
onebitwalktype1(elt, off, bv)
off += elt.Width
}
case TSTRUCT:
for _, f := range t.Fields().Slice() {
onebitwalktype1(f.Type, off+f.Offset, bv)
}
default:
Fatalf("onebitwalktype1: unexpected type, %v", t)
}
}
// usedRegs returns the maximum width of the live register map.
func (lv *Liveness) usedRegs() int32 {
var any liveRegMask
for _, live := range lv.regMaps {
any |= live
}
i := int32(0)
for any != 0 {
any >>= 1
i++
}
return i
}
// Generates live pointer value maps for arguments and local variables. The
// this argument and the in arguments are always assumed live. The vars
// argument is a slice of *Nodes.
func (lv *Liveness) pointerMap(liveout bvec, vars []*Node, args, locals bvec) {
for i := int32(0); ; i++ {
i = liveout.Next(i)
if i < 0 {
break
}
node := vars[i]
switch node.Class() {
case PAUTO:
onebitwalktype1(node.Type, node.Xoffset+lv.stkptrsize, locals)
case PPARAM, PPARAMOUT:
onebitwalktype1(node.Type, node.Xoffset, args)
}
}
}
// allUnsafe indicates that all points in this function are
// unsafe-points.
func allUnsafe(f *ssa.Func) bool {
// The runtime assumes the only safe-points are function
// prologues (because that's how it used to be). We could and
// should improve that, but for now keep consider all points
// in the runtime unsafe. obj will add prologues and their
// safe-points.
//
// go:nosplit functions are similar. Since safe points used to
// be coupled with stack checks, go:nosplit often actually
// means "no safe points in this function".
return compiling_runtime || f.NoSplit
}
// markUnsafePoints finds unsafe points and computes lv.unsafePoints.
func (lv *Liveness) markUnsafePoints() {
if allUnsafe(lv.f) {
// No complex analysis necessary.
lv.allUnsafe = true
return
}
lv.unsafePoints = bvalloc(int32(lv.f.NumValues()))
// Mark architecture-specific unsafe points.
for _, b := range lv.f.Blocks {
for _, v := range b.Values {
if v.Op.UnsafePoint() {
lv.unsafePoints.Set(int32(v.ID))
}
}
}
// Mark write barrier unsafe points.
for _, wbBlock := range lv.f.WBLoads {
if wbBlock.Kind == ssa.BlockPlain && len(wbBlock.Values) == 0 {
// The write barrier block was optimized away
// but we haven't done dead block elimination.
// (This can happen in -N mode.)
continue
}
// Check that we have the expected diamond shape.
if len(wbBlock.Succs) != 2 {
lv.f.Fatalf("expected branch at write barrier block %v", wbBlock)
}
s0, s1 := wbBlock.Succs[0].Block(), wbBlock.Succs[1].Block()
if s0 == s1 {
// There's no difference between write barrier on and off.
// Thus there's no unsafe locations. See issue 26024.
continue
}
if s0.Kind != ssa.BlockPlain || s1.Kind != ssa.BlockPlain {
lv.f.Fatalf("expected successors of write barrier block %v to be plain", wbBlock)
}
if s0.Succs[0].Block() != s1.Succs[0].Block() {
lv.f.Fatalf("expected successors of write barrier block %v to converge", wbBlock)
}
// Flow backwards from the control value to find the
// flag load. We don't know what lowered ops we're
// looking for, but all current arches produce a
// single op that does the memory load from the flag
// address, so we look for that.
var load *ssa.Value
v := wbBlock.Controls[0]
for {
if sym, ok := v.Aux.(*obj.LSym); ok && sym == writeBarrier {
load = v
break
}
switch v.Op {
case ssa.Op386TESTL:
// 386 lowers Neq32 to (TESTL cond cond),
if v.Args[0] == v.Args[1] {
v = v.Args[0]
continue
}
case ssa.Op386MOVLload, ssa.OpARM64MOVWUload, ssa.OpPPC64MOVWZload, ssa.OpWasmI64Load32U:
// Args[0] is the address of the write
// barrier control. Ignore Args[1],
// which is the mem operand.
// TODO: Just ignore mem operands?
v = v.Args[0]
continue
}
// Common case: just flow backwards.
if len(v.Args) != 1 {
v.Fatalf("write barrier control value has more than one argument: %s", v.LongString())
}
v = v.Args[0]
}
// Mark everything after the load unsafe.
found := false
for _, v := range wbBlock.Values {
found = found || v == load
if found {
lv.unsafePoints.Set(int32(v.ID))
}
}
// Mark the two successor blocks unsafe. These come
// back together immediately after the direct write in
// one successor and the last write barrier call in
// the other, so there's no need to be more precise.
for _, succ := range wbBlock.Succs {
for _, v := range succ.Block().Values {
lv.unsafePoints.Set(int32(v.ID))
}
}
}
// Find uintptr -> unsafe.Pointer conversions and flood
// unsafeness back to a call (which is always a safe point).
//
// Looking for the uintptr -> unsafe.Pointer conversion has a
// few advantages over looking for unsafe.Pointer -> uintptr
// conversions:
//
// 1. We avoid needlessly blocking safe-points for
// unsafe.Pointer -> uintptr conversions that never go back to
// a Pointer.
//
// 2. We don't have to detect calls to reflect.Value.Pointer,
// reflect.Value.UnsafeAddr, and reflect.Value.InterfaceData,
// which are implicit unsafe.Pointer -> uintptr conversions.
// We can't even reliably detect this if there's an indirect
// call to one of these methods.
//
// TODO: For trivial unsafe.Pointer arithmetic, it would be
// nice to only flood as far as the unsafe.Pointer -> uintptr
// conversion, but it's hard to know which argument of an Add
// or Sub to follow.
var flooded bvec
var flood func(b *ssa.Block, vi int)
flood = func(b *ssa.Block, vi int) {
if flooded.n == 0 {
flooded = bvalloc(int32(lv.f.NumBlocks()))
}
if flooded.Get(int32(b.ID)) {
return
}
for i := vi - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
v := b.Values[i]
if v.Op.IsCall() {
// Uintptrs must not contain live
// pointers across calls, so stop
// flooding.
return
}
lv.unsafePoints.Set(int32(v.ID))
}
if vi == len(b.Values) {
// We marked all values in this block, so no
// need to flood this block again.
flooded.Set(int32(b.ID))
}
for _, pred := range b.Preds {
flood(pred.Block(), len(pred.Block().Values))
}
}
for _, b := range lv.f.Blocks {
for i, v := range b.Values {
if !(v.Op == ssa.OpConvert && v.Type.IsPtrShaped()) {
continue
}
// Flood the unsafe-ness of this backwards
// until we hit a call.
flood(b, i+1)
}
}
}
// Returns true for instructions that must have a stack map.
//
// This does not necessarily mean the instruction is a safe-point. In
// particular, call Values can have a stack map in case the callee
// grows the stack, but not themselves be a safe-point.
func (lv *Liveness) hasStackMap(v *ssa.Value) bool {
// The runtime only has safe-points in function prologues, so
// we only need stack maps at call sites. go:nosplit functions
// are similar.
if go115ReduceLiveness || compiling_runtime || lv.f.NoSplit {
if !v.Op.IsCall() {
return false
}
// typedmemclr and typedmemmove are write barriers and
// deeply non-preemptible. They are unsafe points and
// hence should not have liveness maps.
if sym, _ := v.Aux.(*obj.LSym); sym == typedmemclr || sym == typedmemmove {
return false
}
return true
}
switch v.Op {
case ssa.OpInitMem, ssa.OpArg, ssa.OpSP, ssa.OpSB,
ssa.OpSelect0, ssa.OpSelect1, ssa.OpGetG,
ssa.OpVarDef, ssa.OpVarLive, ssa.OpKeepAlive,
ssa.OpPhi:
// These don't produce code (see genssa).
return false
}
return !lv.unsafePoints.Get(int32(v.ID))
}
// Initializes the sets for solving the live variables. Visits all the
// instructions in each basic block to summarizes the information at each basic
// block
func (lv *Liveness) prologue() {
lv.initcache()
for _, b := range lv.f.Blocks {
be := lv.blockEffects(b)
// Walk the block instructions backward and update the block
// effects with the each prog effects.
for j := len(b.Values) - 1; j >= 0; j-- {
pos, e := lv.valueEffects(b.Values[j])
regUevar, regKill := lv.regEffects(b.Values[j])
if e&varkill != 0 {
be.varkill.vars.Set(pos)
be.uevar.vars.Unset(pos)
}
be.varkill.regs |= regKill
be.uevar.regs &^= regKill
if e&uevar != 0 {
be.uevar.vars.Set(pos)
}
be.uevar.regs |= regUevar
}
}
}
// Solve the liveness dataflow equations.
func (lv *Liveness) solve() {
// These temporary bitvectors exist to avoid successive allocations and
// frees within the loop.
nvars := int32(len(lv.vars))
newlivein := varRegVec{vars: bvalloc(nvars)}
newliveout := varRegVec{vars: bvalloc(nvars)}
// Walk blocks in postorder ordering. This improves convergence.
po := lv.f.Postorder()
// Iterate through the blocks in reverse round-robin fashion. A work
// queue might be slightly faster. As is, the number of iterations is
// so low that it hardly seems to be worth the complexity.
for change := true; change; {
change = false
for _, b := range po {
be := lv.blockEffects(b)
newliveout.Clear()
switch b.Kind {
case ssa.BlockRet:
for _, pos := range lv.cache.retuevar {
newliveout.vars.Set(pos)
}
case ssa.BlockRetJmp:
for _, pos := range lv.cache.tailuevar {
newliveout.vars.Set(pos)
}
case ssa.BlockExit:
// panic exit - nothing to do
default:
// A variable is live on output from this block
// if it is live on input to some successor.
//
// out[b] = \bigcup_{s \in succ[b]} in[s]
newliveout.Copy(lv.blockEffects(b.Succs[0].Block()).livein)
for _, succ := range b.Succs[1:] {
newliveout.Or(newliveout, lv.blockEffects(succ.Block()).livein)
}
}
if !be.liveout.Eq(newliveout) {
change = true
be.liveout.Copy(newliveout)
}
// A variable is live on input to this block
// if it is used by this block, or live on output from this block and
// not set by the code in this block.
//
// in[b] = uevar[b] \cup (out[b] \setminus varkill[b])
newlivein.AndNot(be.liveout, be.varkill)
be.livein.Or(newlivein, be.uevar)
}
}
}
// Visits all instructions in a basic block and computes a bit vector of live
// variables at each safe point locations.
func (lv *Liveness) epilogue() {
nvars := int32(len(lv.vars))
liveout := varRegVec{vars: bvalloc(nvars)}
livedefer := bvalloc(nvars) // always-live variables
// If there is a defer (that could recover), then all output
// parameters are live all the time. In addition, any locals
// that are pointers to heap-allocated output parameters are
// also always live (post-deferreturn code needs these
// pointers to copy values back to the stack).
// TODO: if the output parameter is heap-allocated, then we
// don't need to keep the stack copy live?
if lv.fn.Func.HasDefer() {
for i, n := range lv.vars {
if n.Class() == PPARAMOUT {
if n.Name.IsOutputParamHeapAddr() {
// Just to be paranoid. Heap addresses are PAUTOs.
Fatalf("variable %v both output param and heap output param", n)
}
if n.Name.Param.Heapaddr != nil {
// If this variable moved to the heap, then
// its stack copy is not live.
continue
}
// Note: zeroing is handled by zeroResults in walk.go.
livedefer.Set(int32(i))
}
if n.Name.IsOutputParamHeapAddr() {
// This variable will be overwritten early in the function
// prologue (from the result of a mallocgc) but we need to
// zero it in case that malloc causes a stack scan.
n.Name.SetNeedzero(true)
livedefer.Set(int32(i))
}
if n.Name.OpenDeferSlot() {
// Open-coded defer args slots must be live
// everywhere in a function, since a panic can
// occur (almost) anywhere. Because it is live
// everywhere, it must be zeroed on entry.
livedefer.Set(int32(i))
// It was already marked as Needzero when created.
if !n.Name.Needzero() {
Fatalf("all pointer-containing defer arg slots should have Needzero set")
}
}
}
}
// We must analyze the entry block first. The runtime assumes
// the function entry map is index 0. Conveniently, layout
// already ensured that the entry block is first.
if lv.f.Entry != lv.f.Blocks[0] {
lv.f.Fatalf("entry block must be first")
}
{
// Reserve an entry for function entry.
live := bvalloc(nvars)
lv.livevars = append(lv.livevars, varRegVec{vars: live})
}
for _, b := range lv.f.Blocks {
be := lv.blockEffects(b)
firstBitmapIndex := len(lv.livevars)
// Walk forward through the basic block instructions and
// allocate liveness maps for those instructions that need them.
for _, v := range b.Values {
if !lv.hasStackMap(v) {
continue
}
live := bvalloc(nvars)
lv.livevars = append(lv.livevars, varRegVec{vars: live})
}
// walk backward, construct maps at each safe point
index := int32(len(lv.livevars) - 1)
liveout.Copy(be.liveout)
for i := len(b.Values) - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
v := b.Values[i]
if lv.hasStackMap(v) {
// Found an interesting instruction, record the
// corresponding liveness information.
live := &lv.livevars[index]
live.Or(*live, liveout)
live.vars.Or(live.vars, livedefer) // only for non-entry safe points
index--
}
// Update liveness information.
pos, e := lv.valueEffects(v)
regUevar, regKill := lv.regEffects(v)
if e&varkill != 0 {
liveout.vars.Unset(pos)
}
liveout.regs &^= regKill
if e&uevar != 0 {
liveout.vars.Set(pos)
}
liveout.regs |= regUevar
}
if b == lv.f.Entry {
if index != 0 {
Fatalf("bad index for entry point: %v", index)
}
// Check to make sure only input variables are live.
for i, n := range lv.vars {
if !liveout.vars.Get(int32(i)) {
continue
}
if n.Class() == PPARAM {
continue // ok
}
Fatalf("bad live variable at entry of %v: %L", lv.fn.Func.Nname, n)
}
// Record live variables.
live := &lv.livevars[index]
live.Or(*live, liveout)
}
// Check that no registers are live across calls.
// For closure calls, the CALLclosure is the last use
// of the context register, so it's dead after the call.
index = int32(firstBitmapIndex)
for _, v := range b.Values {
if lv.hasStackMap(v) {
live := lv.livevars[index]
if v.Op.IsCall() && live.regs != 0 {
lv.printDebug()
v.Fatalf("%v register %s recorded as live at call", lv.fn.Func.Nname, live.regs.niceString(lv.f.Config))
}
index++
}
}
// The liveness maps for this block are now complete. Compact them.
lv.compact(b)
}
// If we have an open-coded deferreturn call, make a liveness map for it.
if lv.fn.Func.OpenCodedDeferDisallowed() {
lv.livenessMap.deferreturn = LivenessInvalid
} else {
lv.livenessMap.deferreturn = LivenessIndex{
stackMapIndex: lv.stackMapSet.add(livedefer),
regMapIndex: 0, // entry regMap, containing no live registers
isUnsafePoint: false,
}
}
// Done compacting. Throw out the stack map set.
lv.stackMaps = lv.stackMapSet.extractUniqe()
lv.stackMapSet = bvecSet{}
// Useful sanity check: on entry to the function,
// the only things that can possibly be live are the
// input parameters.
for j, n := range lv.vars {
if n.Class() != PPARAM && lv.stackMaps[0].Get(int32(j)) {
lv.f.Fatalf("%v %L recorded as live on entry", lv.fn.Func.Nname, n)
}
}
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
// Check that no registers are live at function entry.
// The context register, if any, comes from a
// LoweredGetClosurePtr operation first thing in the function,
// so it doesn't appear live at entry.
if regs := lv.regMaps[0]; regs != 0 {
lv.printDebug()
lv.f.Fatalf("%v register %s recorded as live on entry", lv.fn.Func.Nname, regs.niceString(lv.f.Config))
}
}
}
// Compact coalesces identical bitmaps from lv.livevars into the sets
// lv.stackMapSet and lv.regMaps.
//
// Compact clears lv.livevars.
//
// There are actually two lists of bitmaps, one list for the local variables and one
// list for the function arguments. Both lists are indexed by the same PCDATA
// index, so the corresponding pairs must be considered together when
// merging duplicates. The argument bitmaps change much less often during
// function execution than the local variable bitmaps, so it is possible that
// we could introduce a separate PCDATA index for arguments vs locals and
// then compact the set of argument bitmaps separately from the set of
// local variable bitmaps. As of 2014-04-02, doing this to the godoc binary
// is actually a net loss: we save about 50k of argument bitmaps but the new
// PCDATA tables cost about 100k. So for now we keep using a single index for
// both bitmap lists.
func (lv *Liveness) compact(b *ssa.Block) {
add := func(live varRegVec, isUnsafePoint bool) LivenessIndex { // only if !go115ReduceLiveness
// Deduplicate the stack map.
stackIndex := lv.stackMapSet.add(live.vars)
// Deduplicate the register map.
regIndex, ok := lv.regMapSet[live.regs]
if !ok {
regIndex = len(lv.regMapSet)
lv.regMapSet[live.regs] = regIndex
lv.regMaps = append(lv.regMaps, live.regs)
}
return LivenessIndex{stackIndex, regIndex, isUnsafePoint}
}
pos := 0
if b == lv.f.Entry {
// Handle entry stack map.
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
add(lv.livevars[0], false)
} else {
lv.stackMapSet.add(lv.livevars[0].vars)
}
pos++
}
for _, v := range b.Values {
if go115ReduceLiveness {
hasStackMap := lv.hasStackMap(v)
isUnsafePoint := lv.allUnsafe || lv.unsafePoints.Get(int32(v.ID))
idx := LivenessIndex{StackMapDontCare, StackMapDontCare, isUnsafePoint}
if hasStackMap {
idx.stackMapIndex = lv.stackMapSet.add(lv.livevars[pos].vars)
pos++
}
if hasStackMap || isUnsafePoint {
lv.livenessMap.set(v, idx)
}
} else if lv.hasStackMap(v) {
isUnsafePoint := lv.allUnsafe || lv.unsafePoints.Get(int32(v.ID))
lv.livenessMap.set(v, add(lv.livevars[pos], isUnsafePoint))
pos++
}
}
// Reset livevars.
lv.livevars = lv.livevars[:0]
}
func (lv *Liveness) showlive(v *ssa.Value, live bvec) {
if debuglive == 0 || lv.fn.funcname() == "init" || strings.HasPrefix(lv.fn.funcname(), ".") {
return
}
if !(v == nil || v.Op.IsCall()) {
// Historically we only printed this information at
// calls. Keep doing so.
return
}
if live.IsEmpty() {
return
}
pos := lv.fn.Func.Nname.Pos
if v != nil {
pos = v.Pos
}
s := "live at "
if v == nil {
s += fmt.Sprintf("entry to %s:", lv.fn.funcname())
} else if sym, ok := v.Aux.(*obj.LSym); ok {
fn := sym.Name
if pos := strings.Index(fn, "."); pos >= 0 {
fn = fn[pos+1:]
}
s += fmt.Sprintf("call to %s:", fn)
} else {
s += "indirect call:"
}
for j, n := range lv.vars {
if live.Get(int32(j)) {
s += fmt.Sprintf(" %v", n)
}
}
Warnl(pos, s)
}
func (lv *Liveness) printbvec(printed bool, name string, live varRegVec) bool {
if live.vars.IsEmpty() && live.regs == 0 {
return printed
}
if !printed {
fmt.Printf("\t")
} else {
fmt.Printf(" ")
}
fmt.Printf("%s=", name)
comma := ""
for i, n := range lv.vars {
if !live.vars.Get(int32(i)) {
continue
}
fmt.Printf("%s%s", comma, n.Sym.Name)
comma = ","
}
fmt.Printf("%s%s", comma, live.regs.niceString(lv.f.Config))
return true
}
// printeffect is like printbvec, but for valueEffects and regEffects.
func (lv *Liveness) printeffect(printed bool, name string, pos int32, x bool, regMask liveRegMask) bool {
if !x && regMask == 0 {
return printed
}
if !printed {
fmt.Printf("\t")
} else {
fmt.Printf(" ")
}
fmt.Printf("%s=", name)
if x {
fmt.Printf("%s", lv.vars[pos].Sym.Name)
}
for j, reg := range lv.f.Config.GCRegMap {
if regMask&(1<<uint(j)) != 0 {
if x {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
x = true
fmt.Printf("%v", reg)
}
}
return true
}
// Prints the computed liveness information and inputs, for debugging.
// This format synthesizes the information used during the multiple passes
// into a single presentation.
func (lv *Liveness) printDebug() {
fmt.Printf("liveness: %s\n", lv.fn.funcname())
for i, b := range lv.f.Blocks {
if i > 0 {
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
// bb#0 pred=1,2 succ=3,4
fmt.Printf("bb#%d pred=", b.ID)
for j, pred := range b.Preds {
if j > 0 {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
fmt.Printf("%d", pred.Block().ID)
}
fmt.Printf(" succ=")
for j, succ := range b.Succs {
if j > 0 {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
fmt.Printf("%d", succ.Block().ID)
}
fmt.Printf("\n")
be := lv.blockEffects(b)
// initial settings
printed := false
printed = lv.printbvec(printed, "uevar", be.uevar)
printed = lv.printbvec(printed, "livein", be.livein)
if printed {
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
// program listing, with individual effects listed
if b == lv.f.Entry {
live := lv.stackMaps[0]
fmt.Printf("(%s) function entry\n", linestr(lv.fn.Func.Nname.Pos))
fmt.Printf("\tlive=")
printed = false
for j, n := range lv.vars {
if !live.Get(int32(j)) {
continue
}
if printed {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
fmt.Printf("%v", n)
printed = true
}
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
for _, v := range b.Values {
fmt.Printf("(%s) %v\n", linestr(v.Pos), v.LongString())
pcdata := lv.livenessMap.Get(v)
pos, effect := lv.valueEffects(v)
regUevar, regKill := lv.regEffects(v)
printed = false
printed = lv.printeffect(printed, "uevar", pos, effect&uevar != 0, regUevar)
printed = lv.printeffect(printed, "varkill", pos, effect&varkill != 0, regKill)
if printed {
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
if pcdata.StackMapValid() || pcdata.RegMapValid() {
fmt.Printf("\tlive=")
printed = false
if pcdata.StackMapValid() {
live := lv.stackMaps[pcdata.stackMapIndex]
for j, n := range lv.vars {
if !live.Get(int32(j)) {
continue
}
if printed {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
fmt.Printf("%v", n)
printed = true
}
}
if pcdata.RegMapValid() { // only if !go115ReduceLiveness
regLive := lv.regMaps[pcdata.regMapIndex]
if regLive != 0 {
if printed {
fmt.Printf(",")
}
fmt.Printf("%s", regLive.niceString(lv.f.Config))
printed = true
}
}
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
if pcdata.isUnsafePoint {
fmt.Printf("\tunsafe-point\n")
}
}
// bb bitsets
fmt.Printf("end\n")
printed = false
printed = lv.printbvec(printed, "varkill", be.varkill)
printed = lv.printbvec(printed, "liveout", be.liveout)
if printed {
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
}
fmt.Printf("\n")
}
// Dumps a slice of bitmaps to a symbol as a sequence of uint32 values. The
// first word dumped is the total number of bitmaps. The second word is the
// length of the bitmaps. All bitmaps are assumed to be of equal length. The
// remaining bytes are the raw bitmaps.
func (lv *Liveness) emit() (argsSym, liveSym, regsSym *obj.LSym) {
// Size args bitmaps to be just large enough to hold the largest pointer.
// First, find the largest Xoffset node we care about.
// (Nodes without pointers aren't in lv.vars; see livenessShouldTrack.)
var maxArgNode *Node
for _, n := range lv.vars {
switch n.Class() {
case PPARAM, PPARAMOUT:
if maxArgNode == nil || n.Xoffset > maxArgNode.Xoffset {
maxArgNode = n
}
}
}
// Next, find the offset of the largest pointer in the largest node.
var maxArgs int64
if maxArgNode != nil {
maxArgs = maxArgNode.Xoffset + typeptrdata(maxArgNode.Type)
}
// Size locals bitmaps to be stkptrsize sized.
// We cannot shrink them to only hold the largest pointer,
// because their size is used to calculate the beginning
// of the local variables frame.
// Further discussion in https://golang.org/cl/104175.
// TODO: consider trimming leading zeros.
// This would require shifting all bitmaps.
maxLocals := lv.stkptrsize
// Temporary symbols for encoding bitmaps.
var argsSymTmp, liveSymTmp, regsSymTmp obj.LSym
args := bvalloc(int32(maxArgs / int64(Widthptr)))
aoff := duint32(&argsSymTmp, 0, uint32(len(lv.stackMaps))) // number of bitmaps
aoff = duint32(&argsSymTmp, aoff, uint32(args.n)) // number of bits in each bitmap
locals := bvalloc(int32(maxLocals / int64(Widthptr)))
loff := duint32(&liveSymTmp, 0, uint32(len(lv.stackMaps))) // number of bitmaps
loff = duint32(&liveSymTmp, loff, uint32(locals.n)) // number of bits in each bitmap
for _, live := range lv.stackMaps {
args.Clear()
locals.Clear()
lv.pointerMap(live, lv.vars, args, locals)
aoff = dbvec(&argsSymTmp, aoff, args)
loff = dbvec(&liveSymTmp, loff, locals)
}
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
regs := bvalloc(lv.usedRegs())
roff := duint32(&regsSymTmp, 0, uint32(len(lv.regMaps))) // number of bitmaps
roff = duint32(&regsSymTmp, roff, uint32(regs.n)) // number of bits in each bitmap
if regs.n > 32 {
// Our uint32 conversion below won't work.
Fatalf("GP registers overflow uint32")
}
if regs.n > 0 {
for _, live := range lv.regMaps {
regs.Clear()
regs.b[0] = uint32(live)
roff = dbvec(&regsSymTmp, roff, regs)
}
}
}
// Give these LSyms content-addressable names,
// so that they can be de-duplicated.
// This provides significant binary size savings.
//
// These symbols will be added to Ctxt.Data by addGCLocals
// after parallel compilation is done.
makeSym := func(tmpSym *obj.LSym) *obj.LSym {
return Ctxt.LookupInit(fmt.Sprintf("gclocalsĀ·%x", md5.Sum(tmpSym.P)), func(lsym *obj.LSym) {
lsym.P = tmpSym.P
lsym.Set(obj.AttrContentAddressable, true)
})
}
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
return makeSym(&argsSymTmp), makeSym(&liveSymTmp), makeSym(&regsSymTmp)
}
// TODO(go115ReduceLiveness): Remove regsSym result
return makeSym(&argsSymTmp), makeSym(&liveSymTmp), nil
}
// Entry pointer for liveness analysis. Solves for the liveness of
// pointer variables in the function and emits a runtime data
// structure read by the garbage collector.
// Returns a map from GC safe points to their corresponding stack map index.
func liveness(e *ssafn, f *ssa.Func, pp *Progs) LivenessMap {
// Construct the global liveness state.
vars, idx := getvariables(e.curfn)
lv := newliveness(e.curfn, f, vars, idx, e.stkptrsize)
// Run the dataflow framework.
lv.prologue()
lv.solve()
lv.epilogue()
if debuglive > 0 {
lv.showlive(nil, lv.stackMaps[0])
for _, b := range f.Blocks {
for _, val := range b.Values {
if idx := lv.livenessMap.Get(val); idx.StackMapValid() {
lv.showlive(val, lv.stackMaps[idx.stackMapIndex])
}
}
}
}
if debuglive >= 2 {
lv.printDebug()
}
// Update the function cache.
{
cache := f.Cache.Liveness.(*livenessFuncCache)
if cap(lv.be) < 2000 { // Threshold from ssa.Cache slices.
for i := range lv.be {
lv.be[i] = BlockEffects{}
}
cache.be = lv.be
}
if len(lv.livenessMap.vals) < 2000 {
cache.livenessMap = lv.livenessMap
}
}
// Emit the live pointer map data structures
ls := e.curfn.Func.lsym
ls.Func.GCArgs, ls.Func.GCLocals, ls.Func.GCRegs = lv.emit()
p := pp.Prog(obj.AFUNCDATA)
Addrconst(&p.From, objabi.FUNCDATA_ArgsPointerMaps)
p.To.Type = obj.TYPE_MEM
p.To.Name = obj.NAME_EXTERN
p.To.Sym = ls.Func.GCArgs
p = pp.Prog(obj.AFUNCDATA)
Addrconst(&p.From, objabi.FUNCDATA_LocalsPointerMaps)
p.To.Type = obj.TYPE_MEM
p.To.Name = obj.NAME_EXTERN
p.To.Sym = ls.Func.GCLocals
if !go115ReduceLiveness {
p = pp.Prog(obj.AFUNCDATA)
Addrconst(&p.From, objabi.FUNCDATA_RegPointerMaps)
p.To.Type = obj.TYPE_MEM
p.To.Name = obj.NAME_EXTERN
p.To.Sym = ls.Func.GCRegs
}
return lv.livenessMap
}
// isfat reports whether a variable of type t needs multiple assignments to initialize.
// For example:
//
// type T struct { x, y int }
// x := T{x: 0, y: 1}
//
// Then we need:
//
// var t T
// t.x = 0
// t.y = 1
//
// to fully initialize t.
func isfat(t *types.Type) bool {
if t != nil {
switch t.Etype {
case TSLICE, TSTRING,
TINTER: // maybe remove later
return true
case TARRAY:
// Array of 1 element, check if element is fat
if t.NumElem() == 1 {
return isfat(t.Elem())
}
return true
case TSTRUCT:
// Struct with 1 field, check if field is fat
if t.NumFields() == 1 {
return isfat(t.Field(0).Type)
}
return true
}
}
return false
}